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astronaut resume To the statement business school average person, words and phrases like polymer synthesis and olefin metathesis reaction represent little more than good Scrabble scores. But to Lt. Thesis Statement Anna! Col. Catherine G. Cady Coleman, they mean so much more, and her interest in what these words mean has opened up to her, quite literally, a new universe. Personal School Application! Using her passion and talent for chemistry and engineering, Coleman has made her way up the ranks from inspired student to research chemist to NASA astronaut.
Her journey began in high school, under the tutelage of an descartes critical and interpretive especially enthusiastic chemistry teacher, Mrs. Ruth Opp. She passed her excitement on to me, Coleman says. I discovered later that many things she talked about I didn't really understand at the time, but she made me want to personal business application know more. Coleman says her luck with wonderful teachers continued into college. While attending the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, she was fortunate enough to study under Dr. George Whitesides. He was an incredible lecturer and scholar, she says. I credit my teachers for giving me my enthusiasm for chemistry. Coleman continued her studies at descartes and interpretive essays the University of personal business school, Massachusetts, where she earned a doctorate in homeless statement anna quindlen, polymer science and engineering. It is an interdisciplinary field and allowed Coleman to focus on the chemistry of making polymers and personal, the integral processes used to discover why they do what they do.
A polymer is a chain of thesis paper, molecules, which Coleman describes as being similar to a string of spaghetti. Commonly known polymers are plastics, hair and fibers, like cotton and statement school, silk. It is interesting to autocad homework make chemical reactions using polymers because it involves the chemistry of a long chain of application, bead-like molecules rather than individual molecules that are free to move around and react in any direction, she says. It is the processing that fascinates me, Coleman says. It's like when you used to try and make fudge when you were a kid. Each time you would try to make it, you would put the same set of autocad homework, ingredients together. Yet, one time you get fudge that is all granular and personal, crunchy, and the next it is a soupy mess that won't solidify. It all has to do with the processing -- how you put the ingredients together, the descartes baking time, the way you mixed it up. I always wanted to know how the differences could happen.
Her interest in processing contributed to her interest in the space program, although she says she did not always know she wanted to be an astronaut. Being an astronaut wasn't really a common occupation when I was a kid, Coleman says. Statement Application! I didn't think about it until I was in college, and Sally Ride came to speak at quality MIT. Listening to her, I thought wow, I want that job! I wanted adventure in my life. Coleman entered active duty in the Air Force upon her graduation from the University of personal statement application, Massachusetts. She began her commission working as a research chemist at the Materials Directorate of the Wright Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. She continued her research on polymers and anna, how they can be used in different computer applications, such as data storage.
Coleman was selected by NASA in March 1992 to become an astronaut. Personal Statement Business Application! Her adventure really began in earnest then, and her knowledge area expanded as she attended astronaut basic training. I needed to learn safety procedures, how the space shuttle works, how the space station operates, software information and what to do if things go wrong, Coleman says. Basically, I needed to learn how to be a space shuttle operator. That is not to say that Coleman completely stopped doing science. However, her involvement with chemistry and homeless quindlen, science shifted. I am away from my own research right now, she says.
As an operator, I consult with other scientists as to how they can make their experiments work in space. I understand their goals, which helps me help them create a workable microgravity experiment. Personal Statement! Microgravity, a condition in which the effects of gravity are greatly reduced, can provide an excellent environment for titling scholarship essays certain kinds of personal statement business application, scientific research. Critical! When experiments are done in a microgravity environment, such as on the space shuttle orbiting the Earth, researchers have a unique opportunity to study the fundamental states of personal statement application, matter -- solids, liquids and grow up want, gasses -- and the forces that affect them. Researchers can isolate and study the personal statement business school influence of autocad, gravity on physical processes, as well as other phenomena that are normally masked by gravity. In microgravity, it is possible to change some variables that affect and influence processing in a gravity environment, says Coleman. She assisted with many microgravity experiments on statement school her first space shuttle mission, STS-73 on Columbia, which was the second United States Microgravity Laboratory mission. NASA selects experiments to be performed on space shuttle missions. Astronauts called mission specialists conduct the experiments. On that particular 16-day shuttle flight, Coleman served as a mission specialist, and actively participated in numerous experiments housed in the pressurized Spacelab module.
I personally interacted with 30 experiments, many of which were in fluid physics and crystal growth, she says. This is where my training as a scientist really came in handy, as it is a challenge to work quickly but well. Grow I I When! It is like having 30 customers in 16 days. There isn't time for statement business application mistakes. You need to go up there and do your best. With the space station currently under construction, the possibility of essay grow when, experiments being performed in a more leisurely capacity is a reality. Coleman hopes that one day in the near future she will be conducting such experiments on the space station.
I want to be able to help experimenters get all they can out of their experiments in personal statement, space, she says. On the space station, we would have more time to homework do more scientific exploration. So much of personal statement business application, science is in the mistakes and being aware and intelligent enough to observe them and then learn from them. For the thesis paper moment, Coleman has shifted gears away from personal statement business application, science to continue to gain the depth of experience required of an astronaut. Outlines! In July of 1999, Coleman participated in a five-day shuttle mission, STS-93 on Columbia, serving as the lead mission specialist for the deployment of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Chandra is enabling scientists to conduct comprehensive studies of the universe, and study phenomena such as exploding stars, quasars and black holes. There have been so many developments in space science, like x-ray astronomy, she says. There was so much excitement about this telescope. We have been waiting to get telescopes outside Earth orbit so we can see out into school application the universe. Good! Technology makes discovery possible.
Coleman now is training to work in statement school application, mission control, to be the voice the astronauts in space hear when they call home. Good! Her experience as a scientist will again come in handy. Business! I think it will be very helpful that I know from experience how busy the astronauts are, she says. There needs to be a balance between communication and knowing that they are up there doing their jobs. For instance, I can help make the decisions about whether it is important to discuss with them their plans for the next four hours or to just give them a few more minutes to complete the tasks they are currently doing. It seems to be this appreciation for balance that makes Coleman such an extraordinary astronaut and scientist. Whether she is quality paper processing chemicals, conducting 30 experiments in personal statement business application, space or communicating with the space shuttle, she is in some way utilizing all she has learned. The biggest challenge about being involved in the space program is the need to be able to be good at and know a lot about a lot of things, Coleman says. It's not just chemistry anymore.
Astronaut Catherine G. Cady Coleman, mission specialist, speaks to titling scholarship essays the large crowd that turned out at Ellington Field to welcome home the STS-93 astronauts on April 28, 1999. In a beautiful night launch, the personal school shuttle carries Chandra X-ray Observatory aloft. (Media Player - 28K / 56K; Real Video - 28K / 56K) The Chandra X-ray Observatory is released from Discovery's payload bay. (Media Player - 28K / 56K; Real Video - 28K / 56K) Curator: Kim Dismukes | Responsible NASA Official: John Ira Petty | Updated: 04/07/2002.
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perl write a server 1st Edition March 1997. This book is out of print, but it has been made available online through the personal business application, O'Reilly Open Books Project . The Socket Library. The socket library is a low-level programmer's interface that allows clients to set up a TCP/IP connection and communicate directly to servers. Servers use sockets to listen for incoming connections, and essays clients use sockets to initiate transactions on personal school application, the port that the server is listening on. Do you really need to know about sockets? Possibly not.
In Chapter 5, The LWP Library, we cover LWP, a library that includes a simple framework for connecting to and communicating over the Web, making knowledge of the underlying network communication superfluous. If you plan to use LWP you can probably skip this chapter for now (and maybe forever). Compared to using something like LWP, working with sockets is a tedious undertaking. While it gives you the power to say whatever you want through your network connection, you need to resume be really careful about statement school application what you say; if it's not fully compliant with the homework, HTTP specs, the web server won't understand you! Perhaps your web client works with one web server but not another.
Or maybe your web client works most of the time, but not in special cases. Statement! Writing a fully compliant application could become a real headache. A programmer's library like LWP will figure out which headers to use, the parameters with each header, and special cases like dealing with HTTP version differences and URL redirections. With the socket library, you do all of this on your own. To some degree, writing a raw client with the socket library is like reinventing the wheel. However, some people may be forced to descartes critical essays use sockets because LWP is unavailable, or because they just prefer to do things by hand (the way some people prefer to make spaghetti sauce from scratch). This chapter covers the socket calls that you can use to personal business establish HTTP connections independently of LWP. At the end of the chapter are some extended examples using sockets that you can model your own programs on. A Typical Conversation over Sockets.
The basic idea behind sockets (as with all TCP-based client/server services) is that the server sits and waits for thesis quality paper connections over the network to the port in question. When a client connects to that port, the server accepts the connection and then converses with the client using whatever protocol they agree on personal application, (e.g., HTTP, NNTP, SMTP, etc.). Initially, the server uses the socket( ) system call to create the socket, and the bind( ) call to assign the scholarship essays, socket to a particular port on the host. The server then uses the listen( ) and personal statement business school accept( ) routines to autocad homework establish communication on that port. On the other end, the client also uses the socket( ) system call to create a socket, and then the connect( ) call to initiate a connection associated with that socket on a specified remote host and port. The server uses the statement business school application, accept( ) call to intercept the incoming connection and initiate communication with the client. Now the client and server can each use sysread( ) and syswrite( ) calls to outlines speak HTTP, until the transaction is over. Instead of using sysread( ) and statement business school application syswrite( ), you can also just read from and write to the socket as you would any other file handle (e.g., print FH; ). Finally, either the client or server uses the titling scholarship, close( ) or shutdown( ) routine to end the connection. Figure 4-1 shows the flow of a sockets transaction. The socket library is part of the standard Perl distribution.
Include the personal statement business school application, socket module like this: Table 4-1 lists the essay grow when, socket calls available using the socket library in Perl. Both client and server. Create a generic I/O buffer in the operating system. Establish a network connection and associate it with the I/O buffer created by socket( ) Both client and server. Read data from the network connection.
Both client and server. Write data to the network connection. Both client and server. Associate a socket buffer with a port on statement business school, the machine. Wait for incoming connection from a client.
Accept the incoming connection from good resume, client. Conceptually, think of a socket as a pipe between the business school application, client and server. Data written to outlines one end of the pipe appears on the other end of the pipe. To create a pipe, call socket( ). To write data into one end of the pipe, call syswrite( ). To read on personal statement school application, the other end of the pipe, call sysread( ). Finally, to dispose of the pipe and cease communication between the client and server, call close( ). Since this book is primarily about client programming, we'll talk about the socket calls used by clients first, followed by anna the calls that are only statement business application used on essay grow i i when, the server end. Personal Statement Business Application! Although we're only writing client programs, we cover both client and server functions, for the sake of showing how the library fits together.
Both the client and server use the socket( ) function to essay grow when create a generic pipe or I/O buffer in the operating system. Statement Business School! The socket( ) call takes several arguments, specifying which file handle to associate with the socket, what the network protocol is, and whether the socket should be stream-oriented or record-oriented. For HTTP transactions, sockets are stream-oriented connections running TCP over IP, so HTTP-based applications must associate these characteristics with a newly created socket. For example, in descartes and interpretive essays the following line, the SH file handle is associated with the personal statement school, newly created socket. Homeless Statement Quindlen! PF_INET indicates the personal application, Internet Protocol while getprotobyname('tcp') indicates that the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) runs on top of IP. Finally, SOCK_STREAM indicates that the socket is stream-oriented, as opposed to record-oriented: If the socket call fails, the program should die( ) using the error message found in $! . Establishing a Network Connection. Calling connect( ) attempts to contact a server at descartes critical essays, a desired host and port. The configuration information is stored in a data structure that is passed to connect( ) . The Socket::sockaddr_in( ) routine accepts a port number as the first parameter and a 32-bit IP address as the second number. Socket::inet_aton( ) translates a hostname string or dotted decimal string to a 32-bit IP address. Socket::sockaddr_in( ) returns a data structure that is then passed to connect( ) . Personal Business School Application! From there, connect( ) attempts to establish a network connection to the specified server and thesis port.
Upon successful connection, it returns true. Otherwise, it returns false upon error and personal statement business school assigns $! with an error message. Use die( ) after connect( ) to stop the program and report any errors. Writing Data to thesis paper a Network Connection. To write to the file handle associated with the personal application, open socket connection, use the homeless thesis statement, syswrite( ) routine. The first parameter is the file handle to school write the data to. The data to write is specified as the second parameter. Finally, the third parameter is the length of the data to write. Like this:
An easier way to statement anna quindlen communicate is with print. When used with an autoflushed file handle, the result is the same as calling syswrite( ). The print command is more flexible than syswrite( ) because the programmer can specify more complex string expressions that are difficult to specify in syswrite( ). Using print, the previous example looks like this: Reading Data From a Network Connection. To read from the file handle associated with the open socket connection, use the sysread( ) routine. In the first parameter, a file handle is given to statement application specify the connection to read from. The second parameter specifies a scalar variable to store the data that was read. Finally, the third parameter specifies the maximum number of bytes you want to descartes critical and interpretive essays read from the personal statement business school, connection. The sysread( ) routine returns the number of bytes actually read: If you want to titling scholarship read a line at a time from the file handle, you can also use the angle operator on statement school, it, like so: After the network transaction is complete, close( ) disconnects the network connection.
The following functions set the socket in server mode and scholarship essays map a client's incoming request to a file handle. After a client request has been accepted, all subsequent communication with the client is referenced through the file handle with sysread( ) and syswrite( ), as described earlier. A sockets-based server application first creates the socket as follows: Next, the program calls bind( ) to associate the socket with a port number on the machine. If another program is already using the port, bind( ) returns a false (zero) value. Here, we use sockaddr_in( ) to identify the port for bind( ) . (We use port 80, the application, traditional port for HTTP.)
The listen( ) function tells the operating system that the quality, server is ready to accept incoming network connections on the port. The first parameter is the file handle of the personal statement business, socket to listen to. In the event that multiple client programs are connecting to the port at thesis, the same time, a queue of school, network connections is maintained by the operating system. The queue length is specified in the second parameter: The accept( ) function waits for an incoming request to the server.
For parameters, accept( ) uses two file handles. Quality Paper! The one we've been dealing with so far is a generic file handle associated with the personal statement business school, socket. In the above example code, we've called it F . This is passed in as the second parameter. The first parameter is a file handle that accept( ) will associate with a specific network connection. So when a client connects to the server, accept( ) associates the paper, client's connection with the file handle passed in as the statement business application, first parameter.
The second parameter, F , still refers to a generic socket that is connected to the designated port and is not specifically connected to any clients. You can now read and write to the filehandle to communicate with the client. In this example, the scholarship, filehandle is FH . For example: The following Perl function encapsulates all the necessary code needed to establish a network connection to a server. As input, open_TCP( ) requires a file handle as a first parameter, a hostname or dotted decimal IP address as the second parameter, and a port number as the third parameter. Upon successfully connecting to the server, open_TCP( ) returns 1. Otherwise, it returns undef upon error. Let's try out the function. In the following code, you will need to include the open_TCP( ) function. You can include it in the same file or put it in business school another file and use the require directive to homeless thesis anna quindlen include it. If you put it in a separate file and require it, remember to put a 1; as the last line of the file that is personal statement school, being required. In the following example, we've placed the open_TCP( ) routine into another file (tcp.pl, for critical and interpretive essays lack of imagination), and required it along with the socket library itself:
Once the socket library and open_TCP( ) routine are included, the example below uses open_TCP( ) to establish a connection to port 13 on personal statement, the local machine: If the local machine is running the daytime server, which most UNIX systems and some NT systems run, open_TCP( ) returns successfully. Then, output from the daytime server is printed: Then we close the connection. After running the program, you should see the local time, for example:
This can also be done by using telnet to connect to port 13: Let's modify the previous code to work with a web server instead of the daytime server. Also, instead of embedding the machine name of the server into the source code, let's modify the code to homeless anna quindlen accept a hostname from the user on the command line. Since port 80 is the standard port that web servers use, we'll use port 80 in personal school application the code instead of the daytime server's port: In the good outlines resume, interest of making the program a little more user-friendly, let's add some help text:
Instead of connecting to the port and business application listening for data, the client needs to send a request before data can be retrieved from the server: Then the response code is retrieved and printed out: After all the modifications, the new code looks like this: Let's run the program and see the result: At the core of every good web client program is the homeless statement quindlen, ability to personal business parse a URL into titling, its components. Let's start by personal business school defining such a function. (If you plan to use LWP, there's something like this in critical and interpretive the URI::URL class, and you can skip the example.) Given a full URL, parse_URL( ) will break it up into smaller components. The real work is done with: After this initial parse some of the personal statement business application, components need to be cleaned up: If an optional port was given, remove the homeless statement quindlen, colon from $parsed . If no document path was given, it becomes /. For example, http://www.ora.com becomes http://www.ora.com/.
The function returns an array of the different URL components: ($scheme, $hostname, $port, $path). Or undef upon error. Let's try parse_URL( ) with http://www.ora.com/index.html as input: The parse_URL( ) routine would return the following array: ('http', 'www.ora.com', 80, '/index.html'). We've saved this routine in a file called web.pl, and we'll use it in examples (with a require 'web.pl' ) in this chapter. Now that we have a function that parses URLs, let's use it to create a hypertext version of the personal business school application, UNIX cat command, called hcat. Quality Paper! (There's an LWP version of this in Chapter 6, Example LWP Programs .) Basically speaking, this program looks at statement business application, its command-line arguments for essay grow up want URLs. It prints out the full response for the given URL, including the personal school application, response code, headers, and entity-body. If the user only and interpretive wants the response code, he can use the -r option. Similarly, the -H option specifies that only headers are wanted. A -d option prints out only the entity body.
One can mix these options, too. Personal Application! For example, if the user only wants the response code and headers, she could use -rH. If no arguments are used, or if the -h option is specified, help text is printed out. Let's go over the command-line parsing: The call to outlines resume Getopts( ) indicates that we're interested in the -h, -H, -r, and -d command-line options. Personal Statement School Application! When Getopts( ) finds these switches, it sets $opt_* (where * is the switch that was specified), and leaves any foreign text back on @ARGV. Paper! If the user didn't enter any valid options or a URL, help text is printed. Finally, for any remaining command-line parameters, treat them as URLs and pass them to the hcat( ) routine. Print out response line only: Print out personal statement application, response line and entity-body, but not the headers:
Use multiple URLs: Back to the program. Inside of the good outlines, hcat( ) function, we do some basic URL processing: Then we send an HTTP request to the server. Now we wait for a response from the server.
We read in the response and selectively echo it out, where we look at the $response, $header, and $data variables to see if the user is interested in looking at each part of the reply: The full source code looks like this: With hcat, one can easily retrieve documents from school application, remote web servers. But there are times when a client request needs to be more complex than hcat is willing to thesis quality paper allow. To give the user more flexibility in personal school application sending client requests, we'll change hcat into shcat, a shell utility that accepts methods, headers, and entity-body data from standard input. With this program, you can write shell scripts that specify different methods, custom headers, and submit form data. All of this can be done by changing a few lines around. In hcat, where you see this: Replace it with this: and save it as shcat. Now you can say whatever you want on shcat's STDIN, and it will forward it on to the titling essays, web server you specify.
This allows you to personal statement business do things like HTML form postings with POST, or a file upload with PUT, and selectively look at the results. At this point, it's really all up to you what you want to say, as long as it's HTTP compliant. Here's a UNIX shell script example that calls shcat to do a file upload: When you need to quickly get a list of essays, all the references in an HTML page, here's a utility you can use to fetch an HTML page from a server and print out the URLs referenced within the page. We've taken the hcat code and modified it a little. There's also another function that we added to parse out URLs from the HTML. Let's go over that first: The grab_urls( ) function has two parameters. The first argument is a scalar containing the HTML data to go through.
The second argument is a hash of tags and statement parameters that we're looking for. After going through the homeless thesis statement, HTML, grab_urls( ) returns an array of links that matched the regular expression of the form: tag parameter= . . The outer if statement looks for HTML tags, like A , IMG , BODY , FRAME . The inner if statement looks for parameters to the tags, like SRC and personal application HREF , followed by text. Upon finding a match, the referenced URL is pushed into an array, which is returned at the end of the function. We've saved this in web.pl, and will include it in the hgrepurl program with a require 'web.pl'. The second major change from hcat to homework hgrepurl is the addition of: This appends the statement business, entity-body into the scalar of $data . From there, we call grab_urls( ) twice. The first time looks for image references by recognizing img src=. and body background=. in the HTML. The second time looks for hyperlinks by searching for instances of a href=. . Each call to grab_urls( ) returns an array of URLs, stored in homework @links and @links2, respectively.
Finally, we print the results out. Other than that, there are some smaller changes. For example, we look at the response code. If it isn't 200 (OK), we skip it. We've retrofitted the reading of the personal statement school application, response line, headers, and entity-body to not echo to STDOUT. This isn't needed anymore in titling scholarship the context of personal statement business application, this program. Also, instead of parsing the -r, -H, and -d command-line arguments, we look for -i for displaying image links only, and autocad -l for displaying only hyperlinks. So, to see just the image references at www.ora.com, one would do this:
Or just the statement business school application, hyperlinks at www.ora.com: Or both images and hyperlinks at essays, www.ora.com: The complete source code looks like this: Now that we've done a few examples, let's address some issues that arise when developing, testing, and using web client software. Most of these issues are automatically handled by LWP, but when programming directly with sockets, you have to take care of them yourself. How does your client handle tag parameters? The decision to process or ignore extra tag parameters depends on the application of the web client. Some tag parameters change the tag's appearance by adjusting colors or sizes. Personal School! Other tags are informational, like variable names and hidden variable declarations in HTML forms. Good! Your client may need to pay close attention to personal business these tags.
For example, if your client sends form data, it may want to check all the parameters. Otherwise, your client may send data that is inconsistent with what the grow, HTML specified--e.g., an HTML form might specify that a variable's value may not exceed a length of personal, 20 characters. If the essay up want when, client ignored this parameter, it might send data over 20 characters. As the HTML standard evolves, your client may require some updating. What does your client do when the server's expected HTML format changes?
Examine the data coming back from the server. After your client can handle the current data, think about possible changes that may occur in personal statement business school application the data. Some changes won't affect your client's functionality. For example, textual descriptions in a file listing may be updated. Autocad Homework! But other changes, like the personal school, general format of the HTML, may cause your current client to interpret important values incorrectly. Paper! Changes in data may be unpredictable. Personal Statement Application! When your client doesn't understand the data, it is safer for the client not to assume anything, to abort its current operation, and to notify someone to look into titling essays, it. The client may need to be updated to handle the changes at the server.
Does the statement, client analyze the response line and headers? It is not advisable to write clients that skip over the HTTP response line and headers. While it may be easier to do so, it often comes back to haunt you later. For example, if the URL used by the client becomes obsolete or is changed, the client may interpret the entity-body incorrectly. Media types for the URL may change, and could be noticed in the HTTP headers returned by outlines the server.
In general, the client should be equipped to handle variations in metadata as they occur. Does your client handle URL redirection? Does it need to? Perhaps the desired data still exists, but not at the location specified by your client. In the event of a redirection, will your client handle it? Does it examine the personal statement business school, Location header? The answers to these questions depend on the purpose of the client. Does the homeless thesis statement quindlen, client send authorization information when it shouldn't? Two or more separate organizations may have CGI programs on the same server. It is important for your client not to personal statement business application send authorization information unless it is requested. Otherwise, the client may expose its authentication to an outside organization.
This opens up the user's account to outsiders. What does your client do when the server is down? When the server is down, there are several options. The most obvious option is for the client to attempt the HTTP request at a later time. Other options are to try an alternate server or abort the transaction. The programmer should give the user some configuration options about the client's actions. What does your client do when the server response time is long? For simple applications, it may be better to allow the titling scholarship essays, user to interrupt the application.
For user-friendly or unattended batch applications, it is desirable to time out the connection and statement notify the user. What does your client do when the titling, server has a higher version of HTTP? And what happens when the client doesn't understand the response? The most logical thing is to attempt to talk on a common denominator. Chances are that just about anything will understand HTTP/1.0, if that's what you feel comfortable using.
In most cases, if the client doesn't understand the response, it would be nice to tell the user--or at statement business school application, least let the user know to get the latest version of paper, HTTP for the client!
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Micro and macro market enviroment Essay. In order to correctly identify opportunities and monitor threats, the company must begin with athorough understanding of the marketing environment in personal business, which the firm operates. The marketingenvironment consists of all the actors and forces outside marketing that affect the marketingmanagement’s ability to develop and maintain successful relationships with its target customers.Though these factors and forces may vary depending on the specific company and industrialgroup, they can generally be divided into broad micro environmental and macro environmentalcomponents. For most companies, the micro environmental components are: the company,suppliers, marketing channel firms (intermediaries), customer markets, competitors, and publicswhich combine to essay i i make up the company’s value delivery system. The macro environmentalcomponents are thought to statement business school be: demographic, economic, natural, technological, political, andcultural forces.
The wise marketing manager knows that he or she cannot always affectenvironmental forces. However, smart managers can take a proactive, rather than reactive,approach to the marketing environment. As marketing management collects and processes data on these environments, they must be ever vigilant in essay grow when, their efforts to apply what they learn to developing opportunities and dealing withthreats. Studies have shown that excellent companies not only business, have a keen sense of customer butan appreciation of the titling, environmental forces swirling around them. By constantly looking at thedynamic changes that are occurring in statement, the aforementioned environments, companies are better prepared to good resume adapt to change, prepare long-range strategy, meet the needs of today’s andtomorrow’s customers, and compete with the intense competition present in the globalmarketplace. All firms are encouraged to school application adopt an environmental management perspective in thenew millennium.A company’s marketing environment. consists of the actors and forces outside marketing thataffect marketing management’s ability to titling essays develop and maintain successful relationships with itstarget customers.1). Being successful means being able to adapt the marketing mix to trends and changes thisenvironment.2). Changes in the marketing environment are often quick and personal business school unpredictable.3). The marketing environment offers both opportunities and thesis statement threats.4).
The company must use its marketing research and marketing intelligence systems to monitor the changing environment.5). Systematic environmental scanning helps marketers to statement business revise and adapt marketing strategiesto meet new challenges and opportunities in the marketplace. The marketing environment ismade up of a: 1. Micro environmental2. Macro-environment. 1. Micro Environmental. The microenvironment consists of five components. The first is the organization’s internalenvironment—its several departments and management levels—as it affects marketingmanagement’s decision making. The second component includes the marketing channel firmsthat cooperate to create value: the suppliers and marketing intermediaries (middlemen, physicaldistribution firms, marketing-service agencies, financial intermediaries). The third componentconsists of the five types of markets in which the organization can sell: the consumer, producer,reseller, government, and international markets. The fourth component consists of thecompetitors facing the organization.
The fifth component consists of all the publics that have anactual or potential interest in or impact on the organization’s ability to homework achieve its objectives:financial, media, government, citizen action, and local, general, and personal statement business internal publics. So themicroenvironment consists of six forces close to the company that affect its ability to serve itscustomers:a. The company itself (including departments). b. Suppliers.c. Marketing channel firms (intermediaries).d. Customer markets.e. Competitors.f. Publics. 1. The Company’s Microenvironment. As discussed earlier the company’s microenvironment consists of six forces that affect its abilityto serve its customers.
Lets discuss these forces in detail: a. The Company The first force is the company itself and thesis paper the role it plays in the microenvironment. Business Application? This could bedeemed the internal environment.1). Top management is responsible for setting the company’s mission, objectives, broadstrategies, and policies.2). Marketing managers must make decisions within the parameters established by topmanagement.3). Marketing managers must also work closely with other company departments. Areas such asfinance, R D, purchasing, manufacturing, and accounting all produce better results whenaligned by common objectives and goals.4). Homeless Statement Anna? All departments must “think consumer” if the firm is to be successful. The goal is to providesuperior customer value and application satisfaction. b. Thesis Quality? Suppliers. Suppliers are firms and individuals that provide the personal business, resources needed by the company and itscompetitors to produce goods and services. They are an important link in the company’s overallcustomer “value delivery system.”1). Essay Grow Up Want? One consideration is to watch supply availability (such as supply shortages).2).
Another point of business school application, concern is the monitoring of titling, price trends of personal business school, key inputs. Rising supply costsmust be carefully monitored. c. Outlines? Marketing Intermediaries. Marketing intermediaries are firms that help the company to promote, sell, and distribute itsgoods to final buyers.1). Resellers are distribution channel firms that help the company find customers or make salesto them.2). These include wholesalers and retailers who buy and statement school application resell merchandise.3). Resellers often perform important functions more cheaply than the company can performitself. Thesis Paper? However, seeking and working with resellers is statement school application, not easy because of the power that somedemand and use. Physical distribution firms. help the company to stock and move goods from thesis paper their points of origin to personal statement business school application their destinations.
Examples would be warehouses (that store and protect goods beforethey move to the next destination). Marketing service agencies. (such as marketing research firms, advertising agencies, mediafirms, etc.) help the company target and promote its products. Financial intermediaries (such as banks, credit companies, insurance companies, etc.) helpfinance transactions and insure against risks. d. Customers The company must study its customer markets closely since each market has its own specialcharacteristics. These markets normally include:1). Consumer markets (individuals and households that buy goods and services for personalconsumption).2). Business markets (buy goods and services for further processing or for use in their production process).3). Reseller markets (buy goods and services in order to resell them at a profit).4). Government markets (agencies that buy goods and services in order to quality paper produce publicservices or transfer them to those that need them).5). International markets (buyers of business school application, all types in foreign countries)
Every company faces a wide range of competitors. A company must secure a strategic advantageover competitors by positioning their offerings to be successful in the marketplace. No singlecompetitive strategy is best for all companies. f. Publics. is any group that has an actual or potential interest in or impact on critical and interpretive essays an organization’sability to achieve its objectives. A company should prepare a marketing plan for all of their major publics as well as their customer markets. Generally, publics can be identified as being:1). Financial publics–influence the company’s ability to personal statement obtain funds.2). Media publics–carry news, features, and editorial opinion.3). Government publics–take developments into account.4). Citizen-action publics–a company’s decisions are often questioned by and interpretive, consumer organizations.5).
Local publics–includes neighborhood residents and community organizations.6). Personal Statement Application? General publics–a company must be concerned about the general public’s attitude toward its products and essay grow i i up want services.7). Internal publics–workers, managers, volunteers, and statement application the board of directors. The Company’s Macro environment. The company and autocad all of the personal application, other actors operate in titling scholarship essays, a larger macro environment. of forces thatshape opportunities and pose threats to the company. There are six major forces (outlined below)in the company’s macro environment. There are six major forces (outlined below) in personal statement school, thecompany’s macro environment.a. Demographic. b. Economic.c.
Natural.d. Technological.e. Political.f. Scholarship Essays? Cultural. Environment Demography is the study of human populations in terms of size, density, location, age, sex, race,occupation, and other statistics. It is of major interest to personal school marketers because it involves people and people make up markets. Demographic trends are constantly changing. Some more interestingones are.1).
The world’s population (though not all countries) rate is growing at an explosive rate that willsoon exceed food supply and ability to adequately service the population. The greatest danger isin the poorest countries where poverty contributes to the difficulties. Emerging markets such asChina are receiving increased attention from global marketers.2). The most important trend is the changing age structure of the population. Thesis Statement Quindlen? The population isaging because of personal school application, a slowdown in i i up want, the birth rate (in this country) and life expectancy is increasing.The baby boomers following World War II have produced a huge “bulge” in personal, our population’sage distribution.
The new prime market is the middle age group (in the future it will be the senior citizen group). There are many subdivisions of this group.a). Generation X–this group lies in the shadow of the boomers and lack obvious distinguishingcharacteristics. They are a very cynical group because of all the difficulties that have surroundedand impacted their group. (baby boomlets) are the large growing kid and when teen market. Business School? This group is usedto affluence on the part of their parents (as different from the Gen Xers). One distinguishingcharacteristic is quality paper, their utter fluency and comfort with computer, digital, and Internet technology(sometimes called Net-Gens).c). Generational marketing is possible, however, caution must be used to avoid generationalalienation. Many in the modern family now “telecommute”–work at home or in a remote officeand conduct their business.
using fax, cell phones, modem, or the Internet In general, the population is personal business, becoming better educated. The work force is good, be-coming more white-collar.Products such as books and education services appeal to groups following this trend. Technicalskills (such as in computers) will be a must in the future. The final demographic trend is theincreasing ethnic and racial diversity of the population. Diversity is a force that must berecognized in the next decade. However, companies must recognize that diversity goes beyond ethnic heritage.
One the important markets of the future are that disabled people (a market larger any of our ethnic minority groups). b. Economic Environment. The economic environment includes those factors that affect consumer purchasing power andspending patterns. Major economic trends in the United States include:1). Personal consumption (along with personal debt) has gone up (1980s) and the early 1990s brought recession that has caused adjustments both personally and corporately in this country.Today, consumers are more careful shoppers.
(trying to offer the personal statement business school, consumer greater value for their dollar) is a very seriousstrategy in descartes critical and interpretive, the 1990s. Real income is on the rise again but is being carefully guarded by a value-conscious consumer. is still very skewed in the U. S. and all classes have not shared in prosperity. In addition, spending patterns show that food, housing, and transportation stillaccount for the majority of consumer dollars. It is also of note that distribution of personal business school, income hascreated a “two-tiered market” where there are those that are affluent and less affluent. Marketersmust carefully monitor economic changes so they will be able to prosper with the trend, notsuffer from homework it . c. Natural Environment. The natural environment involves natural resources that are needed as inputs. by marketers or that are affected by marketing activities. During the past two decades environmental concernshave steadily grown. Some trend analysts labeled the specific areas of concern were: 1).Shortages of raw materials.
Staples such as air, water, and wood products have been seriously damaged and non-renewablesuch as oil, coal, and various minerals have been seriously depleted during industrial expansion. is a worldwide problem. Personal Statement Business Application? Industrial damage to the environment is outlines, very serious. Far-sightedcompanies are becoming “environmentally friendly” and are producing environmentally safe andrecyclable or biodegradable goods. The public response to these companies is encouraging.However, lack of adequate funding, especially in third world countries, is a major barrier. 3).Government intervention in natural resource management has caused environmental concerns to be more practical andnecessary in business and industry. Leadership, not punishment, seems to be the best policy for long-term results. Instead of opposing regulation, marketers should help develop solutions to thematerial and energy problems facing the world. 4).Environmentally sustainable strategies. The so-called green movement has encouraged or even demanded that firms produce strategiesthat are not only environmentally friendly but are also environmentally proactive. Firms are beginning to recognize the link between a healthy economy and a healthy environment.
d. Technological Environment. The technological environment. includes forces that create new technologies, creating new product and market opportunities. 1). Technology is personal school application, perhaps the most dramatic force shaping our destiny 2). New technologies create new markets and opportunities. 3).
The following trends are worth watching: a). Faster pace of technological change. Products are being. technologically outdated at a rapid pace. b). There seems to autocad be almost unlimited opportunities being developed daily. Consider theexpanding . fields of statement business, health care, the space shuttle, robotics, and biogenetic industries. c).
The challenge is not only technical but also commercial–to make practical, affordableversions of . . products. d). Increased regulation. Autocad? Marketers should be aware of the regulations concerning product safety,individual privacy, and other areas that affect technological changes. They must also be alert to . Personal Statement School? any.possible negative aspects of an innovation that might harm users or arouse opposition. e. Political Environment. The political environment includes laws, government agencies, and pressure groups thatinfluence and . limit various organizations and titling scholarship individuals in personal statement application, a given society.
Various forms of legislation regulate business. 1). Governments develop. public policy to guide commerce–sets of laws and regulations limiting business for the good of society as a whole. 2). Almost every marketing activity is subject to critical a wide range of statement business school, laws and regulations. Sometrends in good outlines, the political environment include: 1). Increasing legislation to:
a).Protect companies from each other. b).Protecting consumersfrom unfair business practices. c).Protecting interests of society against business, unrestrained business behavior. 2). Up Want When? Changing government agency enforcement. Statement Business School? New laws and homework their enforcement will continue or increase. 3).
Increased emphasis on ethics and socially responsible actions. Personal Business School? Socially responsible firmsactively seek out ways to grow when protect the long-run interests of their consumers and the environment. a). Enlightened companies encourage their managers to look beyond regulation and “do the rightthing.” b). Recent scandals have increased concern about ethics and social responsibility. c). The boom in e-commerce and Internet marketing has created a new set of social and ethicalissues. Concerns are Privacy, Security, Access by vulnerable or unauthorized groups. f. Cultural Environment. The cultural environment is made up of institutions and statement business school other forces that affect society’s basicvalues, perceptions, preferences, and behaviors. Certain cultural characteristics can affectmarketing decision-making. Among the most dynamic cultural characteristics are: 1).
Persistence of cultural values. People’s core beliefs and values have a high degree of i i, persistence. Statement Application? Core beliefs and values are passed on from parents to children and are reinforced byschools, churches, business, and government. Secondary beliefs and values are more open tochange. 2). Shifts in thesis quality, secondary cultural values. Since secondary cultural values and statement beliefs are open tochange, marketers want to good outlines spot them and be able to capitalize on the change potential. Society’smajor cultural views are expressed in. a).People’s views of themselves.
People vary in their emphasis on serving themselves versusserving others. In the 1980s, personal ambition and materialism increased dramatically, withsignificant implications for marketing. The leisure industry was a chief beneficiary. b).People’s views of others. Observers have noted a shift from a “me-society” to a “we-society.” Consumers are spending more on products and services that will improve their livesrather than their image. c).
People’s views of organizations. People are willing to work for large organizations butexpect them to become. increasingly socially responsible. Statement Business School Application? Many companies are linkingthemselves to worthwhile causes. Honesty in autocad, appeals is a must. d).People’s views of society.
This orientation influences consumption patterns. “Buy American”versus buying abroad is an issue that will continue into the next decade. e).People’s view of nature. There is a growing trend toward people’s feeling of mastery over personal statement business application nature through technology and the belief that nature is bountiful. However, nature is finite. Loveof nature and sports associated with nature are expected to be significant trends in the nextseveral years. f).People’s views of the thesis anna quindlen, universe. Studies of the origin of man, religion, and thought-provokingad campaigns are on the rise. Currently, Americans are on a spiritual journey.
This will probablytake the form of “spiritual individualism. University/College: University of personal statement business application, Arkansas System. Type of and interpretive, paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 21 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Micro and macro market enviroment. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample.
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Graduate school personal statement The Writing…
SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. We're about to dive deep into the details of that least beloved* of SAT sections, the SAT essay . Prepare for a discussion of the application, SAT essay rubric and how the outlines resume, SAT essay is graded based on that. I'll break down what each item on the rubric means and what you need to do to meet those requirements. Personal Statement School? On the SAT, the good outlines, last section you'll encounter is the (optional) essay. You have 50 minutes to read a passage, analyze the author's argument, and write an essay. If you don’t write on the assignment, plagiarize, or don't use your own original work, you'll get a 0 on school, your essay. Otherwise, your essay scoring is done by two graders - each one grades you on a scale of 1-4 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing, for a total essay score out of 8 in each of those three areas . But how do these graders assign your writing a numerical grade? By using an essay scoring guide, or rubric. *may not actually be the least beloved. The Complete SAT Essay Grading Rubric: Item-by-Item Breakdown.
Based on good outlines, the CollegeBoard’s stated Reading, Analysis, and Writing criteria, I've created the below charts (for easier comparison across score points). For the purpose of going deeper into just what the SAT is looking for in your essay, I've then broken down each category further (with examples). The information in all three charts is taken from the College Board site. The biggest change to the SAT essay (and the thing that really distinguishes it from the ACT essay) is that you are required to read and analyze a text , then write about your analysis of the author's argument in your essay. Your Reading grade on the SAT essay reflects how well you were able to statement application demonstrate your understanding of the text and the author's argument in your essay. The response demonstrates little or no comprehension of the grow i i, source text. The response fails to personal business application show an understanding of the text’s central idea(s), and may include only details without reference to central idea(s). The response may contain numerous errors of fact and/or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes little or no use of outlines textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating little or no understanding of the source text. Statement Business School? The response demonstrates some comprehension of the source text.
The response shows an understanding of the critical, text’s central idea(s) but not of statement school application important details. The response may contain errors of fact and/or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes limited and/or haphazard use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating some understanding of the source text. Critical Essays? The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the statement business school, text’s central idea(s) and important details. Essay Up Want When? The response is free of substantive errors of fact and interpretation with regard to statement business school application the text. The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the source text.
The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an essay i i when, understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and personal of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text. The response is free of thesis quality paper errors of personal statement school fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text. You'll need to show your understanding of the text on two different levels: the essays, surface level of getting your facts right and the deeper level of getting the relationship of the details and the central ideas right. One of the most important ways you can show you've actually read the passage is making sure you stick to what is said in the text . If you’re writing about things the personal business school, author didn’t say, or things that contradict other things the author said, your argument will be fundamentally flawed.
For instance, take this quotation from a (made-up) passage about why a hot dog is grow i i when, not a sandwich: “The fact that you can’t, or wouldn’t, cut a hot dog in half and eat it that way, proves that a hot dog is once and for all NOT a sandwich” Here's an example of a factually inaccurate paraphrasing of statement school application this quotation: The author builds his argument by discussing how, since hot-dogs are often served cut in autocad half, this makes them different from sandwiches. The paraphrase contradicts the passage, and statement school application so would negatively affect your reading score. Now let's look at an accurate paraphrasing of the quotation: The author builds his argument by discussing how, since hot-dogs are never served cut in half, they are therefore different from sandwiches. It's also important to be faithful to the text when you're using direct quotations from the essay i i when, passage. Misquoting or badly paraphrasing the author’s words weakens your essay, because the evidence you’re using to support your points is faulty. Personal Statement Application? Higher Level: Understanding of Central Ideas. The next step beyond being factually accurate about the passage is showing that you understand the central ideas of the text and how details of the and interpretive essays, passage relate back to statement business school application this central idea. Why does this matter? In order to be able to explain why the author is persuasive, you need to be able to explain the structure of the argument.
And you can’t deconstruct the outlines, author's argument if you don’t understand the central idea of the passage and how the details relate to it. Here's an example of a statement about our fictional hot dogs are sandwiches passage that shows understanding of the central idea of the passage: Hodgman’s third primary defense of why hot dogs are not sandwiches is school application, that a hot dog is not a subset of thesis paper any other type of food. Statement Business? He uses the analogy of asking the question “is cereal milk a broth, sauce, or gravy?” to show that making such a comparison between hot dogs and sandwiches is patently illogical. Homework? The above statement takes one step beyond merely being factually accurate to explain the business school application, relation between different parts of the passage (in this case, the relation between the what is cereal milk? analogy and the hot dog/sandwich debate). Homework? Of course, if you want to personal statement application score well in homework all three essay areas, you’ll need to do more in your essay than merely summarizing the business application, author’s argument. This leads directly into the next grading area of the SAT Essay. The items covered under this criterion are the scholarship, most important when it comes to writing a strong essay. You can use well-spelled vocabulary in sentences with varied structure all you want, but if you don't analyze the author's argument, demonstrate critical thinking, and support your position, you will not get a high Analysis score . The response offers little or no analysis or ineffective analysis of the source text and demonstrates little or no understanding of the analytic task.
The response identifies without explanation some aspects of the author’s use of personal evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s choosing, Or numerous aspects of the response’s analysis are unwarranted based on the text. The response contains little or no support for grow i i up want, claim(s) or point(s) made, or support is largely irrelevant. The response may not focus on features of the text that are relevant to addressing the task, Or the response offers no discernible analysis (e.g., is largely or exclusively summary). The response offers limited analysis of the source text and statement business demonstrates only partial understanding of the analytical task. The response identifies and attempts to describe the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing, but merely asserts rather than explains their importance, or one or more aspects of the response’s analysis are unwarranted based on the text.
The response contains little or no support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response may lack a clear focus on those features of the text that are most relevant to i i up want addressing the task. The response offers an effective analysis of the personal business school, source text and demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task. The response competently evaluates the grow i i up want when, author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant and sufficient support for personal statement application, claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the thesis quindlen, task. The response offers an school, insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task.
The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and titling persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and school strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. Because this category is so important, I've broken it down even further into its two different (but equally important) component parts to make sure everything is as clearly explained as possible. Critical thinking, also known as critical reasoning, also known as logic, is the skill that SAT essay graders are really looking to see displayed in the essay. You need to be able to evaluate and analyze the claim put forward in the prompt. This is where a lot of students may get tripped up, because they think “oh, well, if I can just write a lot, then I’ll do well.” While there is some truth to the assertion that longer essays tend to good outlines resume score higher, if you don’t display critical thinking you won’t be able to get a top score on your essay. What do I mean by critical thinking? Let's take the personal business, previous prompt example: Write an essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich.
An answer to this prompt that does not display critical thinking (and would fall into a 1 or 2 on the rubric) would be something like: The author argues that hot dogs aren’t sandwiches, which is persuasive to the reader. While this does evaluate the prompt (by providing a statement that the author's claim is autocad homework, persuasive to the reader), there is no corresponding analysis. An answer to statement business application this prompt that displays critical thinking (and would net a higher score on descartes and interpretive essays, the rubric) could be something like this: The author uses analogies to hammer home his point that hot dogs are not sandwiches. Because the readers will readily believe the first part of the analogy is true, they will be more likely to accept that the business school application, second part (that hot dogs aren't sandwiches) is true as well. See the outlines resume, difference? Critical thinking involves reasoning your way through a situation (analysis) as well as making a judgement (evaluation) . On the SAT essay, however, you can’t just stop at abstract critical reasoning - analysis involves one more crucial step. Part II: Examples, Reasons, and Other Evidence (Support) The other piece of the personal statement application, puzzle (apparently this is outlines resume, a tiny puzzle) is making sure you are able to back up your point of view and critical thinking with concrete evidence . The SAT essay rubric says that the best (that is, 4-scoring) essay uses “ relevant, sufficient, and business application strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. ” This means you can’t just stick to abstract reasoning like this: The author uses analogies to titling scholarship essays hammer home his point that hot dogs are not sandwiches. Because the school, readers will readily believe the first part of the analogy is true, they will be more likely to resume accept that the second part (that hot dogs aren't sandwiches) is true as well. That explanation is a good starting point, but if you don't back up your point of view with quoted or paraphrased information from the text to support your discussion of the way the author builds his/her argument, you will not be able to get above a 3 on the Analysis portion of the essay (and possibly the business application, Reading portion as well, if you don't show you've read the passage). Let's take a look of an grow i i, example of how you might support an interpretation of the author's effect on personal school application, the reader using facts from the passage : The author’s reference to titling scholarship essays the Biblical story about King Solomon elevates the statement business school application, debate about grow up want when, hot dogs from a petty squabble between friends to a life-or-death disagreement.
The reader cannot help but see the parallels between the two situations and thus find themselves agreeing with the author on this point. Does the author's reference to King Solomon actually elevate the application, debate, causing the reader to agree with the author? From the sentences above, it certainly seems plausible that it might. While your facts do need to be correct, you get a little more leeway with your interpretations of how the author’s persuasive techniques might affect the good resume, audience. As long as you can make a convincing argument for the effect a technique the statement, author uses might have on the reader, you’ll be good. Homework? Say whaaat?! #tbt by tradlands, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped and color-adjusted from personal school application, original. Did I just blow your mind?
Read more about the secrets the SAT doesn’t want you to know in this article. Your Writing score on the SAT essay is not just a reflection of your grasp of the conventions of written English (although it is titling scholarship essays, that as well). You'll also need to be focused, organized, and personal business precise. The response demonstrates little or no cohesion and inadequate skill in the use and control of i i language. The response may lack a clear central claim or controlling idea. The response lacks a recognizable introduction and conclusion. The response does not have a discernible progression of ideas. The response lacks variety in sentence structures; sentence structures may be repetitive.
The response demonstrates general and vague word choice; word choice may be poor or inaccurate. The response may lack a formal style and objective tone. Personal Statement Business? The response shows a weak control of the conventions of standard written English and may contain numerous errors that undermine the titling essays, quality of business school writing. The response demonstrates little or no cohesion and limited skill in the use and control of language. Essays? The response may lack a clear central claim or controlling idea or may deviate from the claim or idea over personal business school application, the course of the response. The response may include an ineffective introduction and/or conclusion. Homework? The response may demonstrate some progression of ideas within paragraphs but not throughout the response. The response has limited variety in sentence structures; sentence structures may be repetitive. The response demonstrates general or vague word choice; word choice may be repetitive.
The response may deviate noticeably from personal application, a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a limited control of the conventions of standard written English and homeless thesis anna quindlen contains errors that detract from the quality of writing and may impede understanding. The response is personal business school, mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of titling scholarship essays language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion.
The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the personal business school, essay. The response has variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing. Autocad? The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. Application? The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. Descartes? The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice.
The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. Personal Statement School Application? The response shows a strong command of the conventions of grow up want standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors. Because there's a lot of different factors that go into calculating your Writing score, I've divided the discussion of this rubric area into statement business school application, five separate items: One of the most basic rules of the outlines resume, SAT essay is that you need to express a clear opinion on the assignment (the prompt) . While in school (and everywhere else in life, pretty much) you’re encouraged to take into account all sides of a topic, it behooves you to NOT do this on the SAT essay. Why? Because you only business school application have 50 minutes to titling read the passage, analyze the author's argument, and write the essay, there's no way you can discuss every single way in which the author builds his/her argument, every single detail of the passage, or a nuanced argument about what works and what doesn't work.
Instead, I recommend focusing your discussion on personal statement school, a few key ways the author is successful in persuading his/her audience of his/her claim. Let’s go back to the assignment we've been using as an scholarship essays, example throughout this article: Write an essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich. Personal Business School? Your instinct (trained from many years of schooling) might be to answer: There are a variety of ways in homeless anna which the personal business application, author builds his argument. This is a nice, vague statement that leaves you a lot of wiggle room. If you disagree with the author, it's also a way of avoiding having to say that the author is persuasive.
Don't fall into this trap! You do not necessarily have to agree with the author's claim in order to analyze how the author persuades his/her readers that the up want, claim is true. Here's an example of a precise central claim about the example assignment: The author effectively builds his argument that hot dogs are not sandwiches by using logic, allusions to history and mythology, and factual evidence. In contrast to personal statement application the vague claim that There are a variety of ways in which the author builds his argument, this thesis both specifies what the author's argument is and good resume the ways in which he builds the argument (that you'll be discussing in the essay). While it's extremely important to make sure your essay has a clear point of view, strong critical reasoning, and support for your position, that's not enough to get you a top score. You need to make sure that your essay demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. What does this mean? Part of the way you can make sure your essay is well organized has to statement business application do with following standard essay construction points.
Don't write your essay in thesis quality paper one huge paragraph; instead, include an introduction (with your thesis stating your point of view), body paragraphs (one for each example, usually), and a conclusion. This structure might seem boring, but it really works to keep your essay organized, and the more clearly organized your essay is, the easier it will be for the essay grader to understand your critical reasoning. The second part of this criteria has to do with keeping your essay focused, making sure it contains a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas. You can't just say well, I have an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion, so I guess my essay is organized and expect to get a 4/4 on your essay. Application? You need to make sure that each paragraph is also organized . Recall the sample prompt: “Write an essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich.” And our hypothetical thesis: The author effectively builds his argument that hot dogs are not sandwiches by titling scholarship essays using logic, allusions to history and mythology, and factual evidence. Let's say that you're writing the personal business school application, paragraph about the author's use of anna quindlen logic to personal statement school application persuade his reader that hot dogs aren't sandwiches. You should NOT just list ways that the quality, author is logical in support of his claim, then explain why logic in general is an effective persuasive device. While your points might all be valid, your essay would be better served by personal statement business application connecting each instance of logic in the passage with an explanation of how that example of logic persuades the critical, reader to agree with the business school, author. Above all, it is imperative that you make your thesis (your central claim) clear in scholarship essays the opening paragraph of your essay - this helps the personal statement school, grader keep track of your argument.
There's no reason you’d want to make following your reasoning more difficult for the person grading your essay (unless you’re cranky and don’t want to autocad do well on the essay. Statement School? Listen, I don’t want to tell you how to live your life). In your essay, you should use a wide array of vocabulary (and use it correctly). Essays? An essay that scores a 4 in Writing on the grading rubric “demonstrates a consistent use of statement precise word choice.” You’re allowed a few errors, even on titling scholarship essays, a 4-scoring essay, so you can sometimes get away with misusing a word or two. In general, though, it’s best to stick to using words you are certain you not only know the personal business application, meaning of, but also know how to use. If you’ve been studying up on vocab, make sure you practice using the words you’ve learned in sentences, and have those sentences checked by someone who is good at quindlen writing (in English), before you use those words in an SAT essay. Creating elegant, non-awkward sentences is the thing I struggle most with under time pressure.
For instance, here’s my first try at the previous sentence: “Making sure a sentence structure makes sense is the thing that I have the most problems with when I’m writing in a short amount of time” (hahaha NOPE - way too convoluted and wordy, self). As another example, take a look at these two excerpts from the hypothetical essay discussing how the author persuaded his readers that a hot dog is not a sandwich: Score of 2: The author makes his point by critiquing the argument against him. The author pointed out the logical fallacy of saying a hot dog was a sandwich because it was meat sandwiched between two breads. Personal Statement Business Application? The author thus persuades the reader his point makes sense to be agreed with and convinces them. The above sentences lack variety in structure (they all begin with the words the author), and the last sentence has serious flaws in descartes critical and interpretive its structure (it makes no sense). Score of 4: The author's rigorous examination of his opponent's position invites the reader, too, to consider this issue seriously. By laying out personal school application his reasoning, step by step, Hodgman makes it easy for the reader to follow along with his train of outlines thought and arrive at the same destination that he has. This destination is statement application, Hodgman's claim that a hot dog is not a sandwich.
The above sentences demonstrate variety in essay grow when sentence structure (they don't all begin with the same word and don't have the same underlying structure) that presumably forward the personal business school, point of the grow up want when, essay. In general, if you're doing well in all the other Writing areas, your sentence structures will also naturally vary. If you're really worried that your sentences are not varied enough, however, my advice for working on personal, demonstrating meaningful variety in sentence structure (without ending up with terribly worded sentences) is descartes critical and interpretive, twofold: Read over business school, what you’ve written before you hand it in and change any wordings that seem awkward, clunky, or just plain incorrect. As you’re doing practice essays, have a friend, family member, or teacher who is and interpretive, good at school application (English) writing look over your essays and point out any issues that arise. This part of the Writing grade is all about the nitty gritty details of writing: grammar, punctuation, and autocad spelling . It's rare that an essay with serious flaws in personal application this area can score a 4/4 in Reading, Analysis, or Writing, because such persistent errors often interfere with meaning (that is, persistent errors make it difficult for the grader to understand what you're trying to get across). Titling Scholarship? On the other hand, if they occur in small quantities, grammar/punctuation/spelling errors are also the things that are most likely to be overlooked.
If two essays are otherwise of personal statement equal quality, but one writer misspells definitely as definately and autocad the other writer fails to explain how one of her examples supports her thesis, the first writer will receive a higher essay score. It's only when poor grammar, use of personal statement business punctuation, and and interpretive essays spelling start to business school application make it difficult to understand your essay that the graders start penalizing you. My advice for working on this rubric area is the same advice as for and interpretive, sentence structure: look over what you’ve written to double check for mistakes, and ask someone who’s good at writing to look over your practice essays and point out your errors. Application? If you're really struggling with spelling, simply typing up your (handwritten) essay into a program like Microsoft Word and running spellcheck can alert you to problems. Up Want? We've also got a great set of personal statement articles up on our blog about essays, SAT Writing questions that may help you better understand any grammatical errors you are making. How Do I Use The SAT Essay Grading Rubric? Now that you understand the statement business school application, SAT essay rubric, how can you use it in your SAT prep? There are a couple of different ways. Titling Scholarship? Use The SAT Essay Rubric To.
Shape Your Essays. Since you know what the personal statement business school application, SAT is looking for in an essay, you can now use that knowledge to guide what you write about in your essays! A tale from my youth: when I was preparing to take the SAT for the first time, I did not really know what the essay was looking for, and assumed that since I was a good writer, I’d be fine. Not true! The most important part of the SAT essay is using specific examples from the quality, passage and explaining how they convince the personal business school, reader of the author's point. By reading this article and realizing there's more to descartes the essay than being a strong writer, you’re already doing better than high school me.
Change the object in that girl’s left hand from a mirror to a textbook and business school you have a pretty good sketch of descartes critical and interpretive essays what my junior year of high school looked like. Use The SAT Essay Rubric To. Grade Your Practice Essays. The SAT can’t exactly give you an answer key to the essay. Even when an example of an essay that scored a particular score is provided, that essay will probably use different examples than you did, make different arguments, maybe even argue different interpretations of the personal application, text. making it difficult to compare the two. Homework? The SAT essay rubric is the next best thing to school application an answer key for the essay - use it as a lens through which to view and assess your essay. Of course, you don’t have the time to become an expert SAT essay grader - that’s not your job.
You just have to apply the rubric as best as you can to your essays and up want work on fixing your weak areas . For the sentence structure, grammar, usage, and mechanics stuff I highly recommend asking a friend, teacher, or family member who is personal school application, really good at (English) writing to take a look over your practice essays and point out the mistakes. If you really want custom feedback on your practice essays from experienced essay graders, may I also suggest the homeless anna, PrepScholar test prep platform? I manage the personal business school application, essay grading and so happen to know quite a bit about the essay part of this platform, which gives you both an essay grade and descartes critical custom feedback for each essay you complete. Personal Statement School Application? Learn more about good, how it all works here. Statement Business? Are you so excited by this article that you want to read even more articles on the SAT essay? Of course you are. Thesis Quality Paper? Don't worry, I’ve got you covered. Learn how to write an statement application, SAT essay step-by-step and read about the 6 types of SAT essay prompts. Still not satisfied? Maybe a five-day free trial of our very own PrepScholar test prep platform (which includes essay practice and feedback) is just what you need. Good? Trying to figure out whether the personal statement business school application, old or new SAT essay is better for resume, you?
Take a look at our article on the new SAT essay assignment to find out! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is business school, entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and thesis quality weaknesses. If you liked this Essay lesson, you'll love our program. Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands of personal school application practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about good outlines, what to study next.
Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and personal application earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media.
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concept cover letter My Dear Fellow Clergymen: While confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statement calling my present activities unwise and untimely. Personal Statement? Seldom do I pause to answer criticism of homeless thesis statement anna, my work and ideas. If I sought to answer all the criticisms that cross my desk, my secretaries would have little time for anything other than such correspondence in the course of the day, and I would have no time for school application, constructive work. But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I want to try to answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms. I think I should indicate why I am here in Birmingham, since you have been influenced by essay i i up want when, the view which argues against outsiders coming in. I have the honor of serving as president of the personal business school application, Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization operating in every southern state, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. We have some eighty five affiliated organizations across the South, and one of them is the autocad homework, Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights. Frequently we share staff, educational and financial resources with our affiliates.
Several months ago the affiliate here in Birmingham asked us to be on call to engage in a nonviolent direct action program if such were deemed necessary. Application? We readily consented, and when the hour came we lived up to our promise. So I, along with several members of my staff, am here because I was invited here. I am here because I have organizational ties here. But more basically, I am in Birmingham because injustice is here. Just as the prophets of the eighth century B.C. left their villages and carried their thus saith the Lord far beyond the boundaries of their home towns, and just as the Apostle Paul left his village of Tarsus and carried the gospel of Jesus Christ to the far corners of the Greco Roman world, so am I compelled to carry the outlines resume, gospel of statement, freedom beyond my own home town. Like Paul, I must constantly respond to the Macedonian call for thesis, aid. Moreover, I am cognizant of the interrelatedness of all communities and states.
I cannot sit idly by in Atlanta and not be concerned about what happens in Birmingham. Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. Personal Business? We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of grow i i up want, destiny. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly. Never again can we afford to live with the narrow, provincial outside agitator idea. Anyone who lives inside the United States can never be considered an business school, outsider anywhere within its bounds. You deplore the demonstrations taking place in Birmingham. But your statement, I am sorry to say, fails to autocad homework express a similar concern for the conditions that brought about the demonstrations. I am sure that none of you would want to rest content with the superficial kind of social analysis that deals merely with effects and does not grapple with underlying causes. It is unfortunate that demonstrations are taking place in Birmingham, but it is even more unfortunate that the city's white power structure left the personal statement school, Negro community with no alternative. In any nonviolent campaign there are four basic steps: collection of the titling essays, facts to determine whether injustices exist; negotiation; self purification; and personal statement, direct action.
We have gone through all these steps in Birmingham. There can be no gainsaying the fact that racial injustice engulfs this community. Birmingham is probably the most thoroughly segregated city in the United States. Thesis Quindlen? Its ugly record of brutality is widely known. Negroes have experienced grossly unjust treatment in the courts.
There have been more unsolved bombings of Negro homes and churches in Birmingham than in any other city in the nation. These are the personal business school application, hard, brutal facts of the case. On the basis of these conditions, Negro leaders sought to negotiate with the city fathers. But the latter consistently refused to engage in good faith negotiation. Then, last September, came the opportunity to talk with leaders of Birmingham's economic community. Quindlen? In the course of the negotiations, certain promises were made by the merchants--for example, to remove the stores' humiliating racial signs. On the personal school, basis of these promises, the Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth and the leaders of the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights agreed to a moratorium on critical all demonstrations. Personal School Application? As the weeks and months went by, we realized that we were the victims of a broken promise.
A few signs, briefly removed, returned; the others remained. Titling Essays? As in personal business so many past experiences, our hopes had been blasted, and the shadow of deep disappointment settled upon us. We had no alternative except to prepare for thesis quality, direct action, whereby we would present our very bodies as a means of laying our case before the conscience of the business school, local and the national community. Mindful of the difficulties involved, we decided to undertake a process of homeless thesis statement anna, self purification. We began a series of workshops on nonviolence, and we repeatedly asked ourselves: Are you able to accept blows without retaliating? Are you able to endure the ordeal of jail? We decided to schedule our direct action program for the Easter season, realizing that except for Christmas, this is the main shopping period of the year. Knowing that a strong economic-withdrawal program would be the by product of personal business, direct action, we felt that this would be the and interpretive, best time to bring pressure to bear on statement school application the merchants for the needed change. Then it occurred to us that Birmingham's mayoral election was coming up in March, and we speedily decided to postpone action until after election day.
When we discovered that the statement anna quindlen, Commissioner of personal statement, Public Safety, Eugene Bull Connor, had piled up enough votes to be in the run off, we decided again to postpone action until the day after the run off so that the outlines resume, demonstrations could not be used to cloud the issues. Like many others, we waited to see Mr. Connor defeated, and to application this end we endured postponement after postponement. Having aided in this community need, we felt that our direct action program could be delayed no longer. You may well ask: Why direct action? Why sit ins, marches and so forth? Isn't negotiation a better path? You are quite right in calling for homeless anna, negotiation. Indeed, this is the very purpose of direct action.
Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to personal business school confront the critical, issue. Personal Statement Business? It seeks so to dramatize the issue that it can no longer be ignored. My citing the creation of statement anna quindlen, tension as part of the work of the nonviolent resister may sound rather shocking. But I must confess that I am not afraid of the word tension. I have earnestly opposed violent tension, but there is a type of constructive, nonviolent tension which is necessary for growth. Just as Socrates felt that it was necessary to create a tension in the mind so that individuals could rise from the bondage of personal school, myths and half truths to the unfettered realm of creative analysis and objective appraisal, so must we see the need for nonviolent gadflies to create the kind of tension in society that will help men rise from the dark depths of prejudice and racism to the majestic heights of understanding and brotherhood. The purpose of our direct action program is to create a situation so crisis packed that it will inevitably open the door to negotiation.
I therefore concur with you in your call for negotiation. Too long has our beloved Southland been bogged down in a tragic effort to live in homeless quindlen monologue rather than dialogue. One of the statement school application, basic points in your statement is that the good outlines, action that I and my associates have taken in Birmingham is untimely. Some have asked: Why didn't you give the new city administration time to act? The only personal statement school application, answer that I can give to this query is that the autocad, new Birmingham administration must be prodded about as much as the outgoing one, before it will act. We are sadly mistaken if we feel that the election of personal statement business school application, Albert Boutwell as mayor will bring the millennium to Birmingham. While Mr. Boutwell is a much more gentle person than Mr. Connor, they are both segregationists, dedicated to maintenance of the status quo. I have hope that Mr.
Boutwell will be reasonable enough to see the futility of descartes critical and interpretive essays, massive resistance to desegregation. But he will not see this without pressure from devotees of civil rights. My friends, I must say to you that we have not made a single gain in civil rights without determined legal and nonviolent pressure. Lamentably, it is an historical fact that privileged groups seldom give up their privileges voluntarily. Individuals may see the moral light and voluntarily give up their unjust posture; but, as Reinhold Niebuhr has reminded us, groups tend to be more immoral than individuals. We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by business school, the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed. Frankly, I have yet to homework engage in a direct action campaign that was well timed in the view of those who have not suffered unduly from the disease of segregation. For years now I have heard the word Wait! It rings in the ear of every Negro with piercing familiarity. This Wait has almost always meant Never. We must come to see, with one of our distinguished jurists, that justice too long delayed is justice denied.
We have waited for more than 340 years for personal, our constitutional and God given rights. Thesis? The nations of statement business application, Asia and Africa are moving with jetlike speed toward gaining political independence, but we still creep at thesis quality, horse and buggy pace toward gaining a cup of coffee at a lunch counter. Personal Business? Perhaps it is easy for those who have never felt the stinging darts of segregation to say, Wait. But when you have seen vicious mobs lynch your mothers and fathers at will and good resume, drown your sisters and personal business school, brothers at whim; when you have seen hate filled policemen curse, kick and titling, even kill your black brothers and sisters; when you see the application, vast majority of your twenty million Negro brothers smothering in an airtight cage of poverty in homework the midst of an affluent society; when you suddenly find your tongue twisted and your speech stammering as you seek to explain to your six year old daughter why she can't go to the public amusement park that has just been advertised on television, and see tears welling up in her eyes when she is told that Funtown is closed to colored children, and see ominous clouds of inferiority beginning to form in her little mental sky, and see her beginning to distort her personality by developing an unconscious bitterness toward white people; when you have to concoct an answer for a five year old son who is asking: Daddy, why do white people treat colored people so mean?; when you take a cross county drive and find it necessary to sleep night after night in the uncomfortable corners of your automobile because no motel will accept you; when you are humiliated day in and day out by personal statement business, nagging signs reading white and colored; when your first name becomes nigger, your middle name becomes boy (however old you are) and your last name becomes John, and thesis paper, your wife and personal statement business, mother are never given the respected title Mrs.; when you are harried by day and haunted by night by the fact that you are a Negro, living constantly at tiptoe stance, never quite knowing what to expect next, and are plagued with inner fears and outer resentments; when you are forever fighting a degenerating sense of nobodiness--then you will understand why we find it difficult to wait. There comes a time when the cup of endurance runs over, and men are no longer willing to be plunged into the abyss of despair. I hope, sirs, you can understand our legitimate and unavoidable impatience. And Interpretive Essays? You express a great deal of anxiety over statement our willingness to break laws. This is certainly a legitimate concern. Since we so diligently urge people to obey the Supreme Court's decision of 1954 outlawing segregation in the public schools, at homeless statement quindlen, first glance it may seem rather paradoxical for application, us consciously to break laws.
One may well ask: How can you advocate breaking some laws and obeying others? The answer lies in the fact that there are two types of laws: just and unjust. I would be the first to advocate obeying just laws. One has not only homeless quindlen, a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. I would agree with St.
Augustine that an unjust law is no law at personal statement business application, all. Now, what is the difference between the two? How does one determine whether a law is autocad, just or unjust? A just law is a man made code that squares with the statement school application, moral law or the law of God. An unjust law is quality paper, a code that is school application, out of harmony with the moral law. To put it in the terms of St. Thomas Aquinas: An unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in eternal law and natural law.
Any law that uplifts human personality is just. Any law that degrades human personality is unjust. All segregation statutes are unjust because segregation distorts the essay grow i i up want when, soul and damages the personality. It gives the statement business application, segregator a false sense of superiority and the segregated a false sense of inferiority. Segregation, to use the terminology of the Jewish philosopher Martin Buber, substitutes an I it relationship for titling, an I thou relationship and ends up relegating persons to the status of things. Hence segregation is not only politically, economically and sociologically unsound, it is morally wrong and sinful.
Paul Tillich has said that sin is separation. Is not segregation an school application, existential expression of man's tragic separation, his awful estrangement, his terrible sinfulness? Thus it is thesis paper, that I can urge men to obey the 1954 decision of the Supreme Court, for it is morally right; and I can urge them to disobey segregation ordinances, for they are morally wrong. Let us consider a more concrete example of just and unjust laws. An unjust law is a code that a numerical or power majority group compels a minority group to obey but does not make binding on itself. This is difference made legal.
By the same token, a just law is statement school, a code that a majority compels a minority to quality follow and that it is willing to follow itself. This is sameness made legal. Let me give another explanation. A law is unjust if it is inflicted on personal statement school a minority that, as a result of being denied the right to vote, had no part in essay i i when enacting or devising the law. Who can say that the legislature of Alabama which set up that state's segregation laws was democratically elected? Throughout Alabama all sorts of devious methods are used to prevent Negroes from becoming registered voters, and there are some counties in which, even though Negroes constitute a majority of the personal school application, population, not a single Negro is registered. Can any law enacted under such circumstances be considered democratically structured? Sometimes a law is just on its face and unjust in its application.
For instance, I have been arrested on descartes and interpretive a charge of parading without a permit. Now, there is nothing wrong in having an ordinance which requires a permit for a parade. But such an statement business school application, ordinance becomes unjust when it is used to maintain segregation and to titling scholarship essays deny citizens the First-Amendment privilege of peaceful assembly and protest. I hope you are able to see the distinction I am trying to point out. School? In no sense do I advocate evading or defying the law, as would the rabid segregationist. That would lead to quality paper anarchy. Business Application? One who breaks an unjust law must do so openly, lovingly, and with a willingness to accept the penalty.
I submit that an individual who breaks a law that conscience tells him is unjust, and who willingly accepts the penalty of imprisonment in order to arouse the conscience of the outlines, community over its injustice, is in reality expressing the statement business school, highest respect for law. Of course, there is nothing new about this kind of civil disobedience. It was evidenced sublimely in the refusal of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego to obey the titling, laws of Nebuchadnezzar, on the ground that a higher moral law was at stake. It was practiced superbly by the early Christians, who were willing to personal business school face hungry lions and the excruciating pain of chopping blocks rather than submit to autocad homework certain unjust laws of the Roman Empire. To a degree, academic freedom is a reality today because Socrates practiced civil disobedience. In our own nation, the Boston Tea Party represented a massive act of civil disobedience. We should never forget that everything Adolf Hitler did in Germany was legal and everything the Hungarian freedom fighters did in Hungary was illegal. It was illegal to aid and comfort a Jew in Hitler's Germany.
Even so, I am sure that, had I lived in Germany at the time, I would have aided and comforted my Jewish brothers. If today I lived in a Communist country where certain principles dear to the Christian faith are suppressed, I would openly advocate disobeying that country's antireligious laws. I must make two honest confessions to you, my Christian and personal, Jewish brothers. First, I must confess that over the past few years I have been gravely disappointed with the white moderate. I have almost reached the regrettable conclusion that the Negro's great stumbling block in his stride toward freedom is not the White Citizen's Counciler or the Ku Klux Klanner, but the white moderate, who is more devoted to order than to justice; who prefers a negative peace which is the absence of tension to homeless statement anna quindlen a positive peace which is the presence of justice; who constantly says: I agree with you in the goal you seek, but I cannot agree with your methods of direct action; who paternalistically believes he can set the timetable for another man's freedom; who lives by a mythical concept of statement school, time and who constantly advises the Negro to wait for a more convenient season. Shallow understanding from people of good will is more frustrating than absolute misunderstanding from i i when, people of ill will. Lukewarm acceptance is much more bewildering than outright rejection. I had hoped that the white moderate would understand that law and order exist for the purpose of establishing justice and that when they fail in personal statement business school application this purpose they become the dangerously structured dams that block the flow of thesis paper, social progress. I had hoped that the white moderate would understand that the statement school, present tension in the South is a necessary phase of the transition from an quality paper, obnoxious negative peace, in which the Negro passively accepted his unjust plight, to a substantive and personal school, positive peace, in which all men will respect the dignity and homeless thesis quindlen, worth of human personality. Personal Statement Business School? Actually, we who engage in nonviolent direct action are not the creators of tension.
We merely bring to essay grow up want when the surface the hidden tension that is already alive. We bring it out in the open, where it can be seen and dealt with. Like a boil that can never be cured so long as it is covered up but must be opened with all its ugliness to personal business application the natural medicines of air and light, injustice must be exposed, with all the tension its exposure creates, to thesis quality paper the light of human conscience and the air of business application, national opinion before it can be cured. In your statement you assert that our actions, even though peaceful, must be condemned because they precipitate violence. But is this a logical assertion? Isn't this like condemning a robbed man because his possession of money precipitated the evil act of robbery? Isn't this like condemning Socrates because his unswerving commitment to truth and his philosophical inquiries precipitated the act by the misguided populace in which they made him drink hemlock? Isn't this like condemning Jesus because his unique God consciousness and never ceasing devotion to God's will precipitated the evil act of crucifixion? We must come to see that, as the federal courts have consistently affirmed, it is wrong to thesis quality paper urge an individual to cease his efforts to statement school application gain his basic constitutional rights because the homeless thesis anna, quest may precipitate violence. Society must protect the business, robbed and punish the robber. I had also hoped that the essays, white moderate would reject the myth concerning time in relation to statement business the struggle for freedom.
I have just received a letter from a white brother in Texas. He writes: All Christians know that the colored people will receive equal rights eventually, but it is possible that you are in titling scholarship essays too great a religious hurry. It has taken Christianity almost two thousand years to accomplish what it has. The teachings of Christ take time to come to earth. Such an personal application, attitude stems from a tragic misconception of time, from the strangely irrational notion that there is something in the very flow of time that will inevitably cure all ills. Actually, time itself is neutral; it can be used either destructively or constructively. More and statement, more I feel that the people of personal application, ill will have used time much more effectively than have the people of autocad, good will. We will have to repent in this generation not merely for the hateful words and actions of the bad people but for the appalling silence of the application, good people. Human progress never rolls in on wheels of good outlines resume, inevitability; it comes through the tireless efforts of men willing to personal statement business school be co workers with God, and without this hard work, time itself becomes an ally of the forces of social stagnation. We must use time creatively, in the knowledge that the time is always ripe to do right. Now is the time to make real the promise of democracy and transform our pending national elegy into a creative psalm of outlines, brotherhood.
Now is the personal statement, time to good outlines lift our national policy from the quicksand of business school, racial injustice to quality the solid rock of human dignity. You speak of our activity in Birmingham as extreme. At first I was rather disappointed that fellow clergymen would see my nonviolent efforts as those of an extremist. Personal Business School Application? I began thinking about the fact that I stand in the middle of two opposing forces in the Negro community. One is a force of quality paper, complacency, made up in part of Negroes who, as a result of long years of oppression, are so drained of self respect and a sense of somebodiness that they have adjusted to segregation; and in part of a few middle-class Negroes who, because of personal, a degree of academic and economic security and because in some ways they profit by segregation, have become insensitive to the problems of the masses. The other force is one of bitterness and hatred, and paper, it comes perilously close to advocating violence. It is personal, expressed in the various black nationalist groups that are springing up across the nation, the largest and best known being Elijah Muhammad's Muslim movement.
Nourished by the Negro's frustration over the continued existence of racial discrimination, this movement is made up of people who have lost faith in America, who have absolutely repudiated Christianity, and who have concluded that the white man is an incorrigible devil. I have tried to stand between these two forces, saying that we need emulate neither the descartes and interpretive essays, do nothingism of the complacent nor the hatred and despair of the personal school application, black nationalist. For there is the more excellent way of love and nonviolent protest. I am grateful to essays God that, through the personal business school, influence of the Negro church, the way of nonviolence became an integral part of our struggle. If this philosophy had not emerged, by now many streets of the thesis paper, South would, I am convinced, be flowing with blood. And I am further convinced that if our white brothers dismiss as rabble rousers and outside agitators those of us who employ nonviolent direct action, and if they refuse to support our nonviolent efforts, millions of Negroes will, out of frustration and despair, seek solace and security in black nationalist ideologies--a development that would inevitably lead to a frightening racial nightmare. Oppressed people cannot remain oppressed forever. The yearning for freedom eventually manifests itself, and that is what has happened to the American Negro. Something within has reminded him of his birthright of freedom, and something without has reminded him that it can be gained. Consciously or unconsciously, he has been caught up by the Zeitgeist, and with his black brothers of Africa and his brown and yellow brothers of Asia, South America and the Caribbean, the United States Negro is moving with a sense of personal statement school, great urgency toward the promised land of racial justice.
If one recognizes this vital urge that has engulfed the Negro community, one should readily understand why public demonstrations are taking place. The Negro has many pent up resentments and latent frustrations, and he must release them. Titling Scholarship Essays? So let him march; let him make prayer pilgrimages to the city hall; let him go on freedom rides -and try to understand why he must do so. If his repressed emotions are not released in nonviolent ways, they will seek expression through violence; this is not a threat but a fact of history. So I have not said to my people: Get rid of personal business application, your discontent. Rather, I have tried to say that this normal and healthy discontent can be channeled into descartes essays the creative outlet of nonviolent direct action. And now this approach is being termed extremist. But though I was initially disappointed at being categorized as an extremist, as I continued to think about the statement application, matter I gradually gained a measure of satisfaction from the label. Essay Grow? Was not Jesus an extremist for personal application, love: Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and homework, pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you. Business School? Was not Amos an extremist for justice: Let justice roll down like waters and righteousness like an ever flowing stream.
Was not Paul an extremist for the Christian gospel: I bear in my body the marks of the Lord Jesus. Was not Martin Luther an essay i i, extremist: Here I stand; I cannot do otherwise, so help me God. And John Bunyan: I will stay in jail to personal statement school application the end of my days before I make a butchery of my conscience. And Abraham Lincoln: This nation cannot survive half slave and half free. And Thomas Jefferson: We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal . Thesis Paper? . . So the question is not whether we will be extremists, but what kind of business school application, extremists we will be. Will we be extremists for hate or for love? Will we be extremists for the preservation of injustice or for the extension of justice? In that dramatic scene on outlines Calvary's hill three men were crucified. We must never forget that all three were crucified for the same crime--the crime of extremism. Two were extremists for immorality, and thus fell below their environment.
The other, Jesus Christ, was an extremist for love, truth and statement business school, goodness, and thereby rose above his environment. Perhaps the South, the nation and paper, the world are in dire need of personal statement application, creative extremists. I had hoped that the white moderate would see this need. Paper? Perhaps I was too optimistic; perhaps I expected too much. I suppose I should have realized that few members of the oppressor race can understand the deep groans and passionate yearnings of the oppressed race, and still fewer have the personal, vision to see that injustice must be rooted out by strong, persistent and determined action. I am thankful, however, that some of our white brothers in the South have grasped the meaning of homework, this social revolution and committed themselves to school application it. They are still all too few in quantity, but they are big in essays quality. Some -such as Ralph McGill, Lillian Smith, Harry Golden, James McBride Dabbs, Ann Braden and business school application, Sarah Patton Boyle--have written about outlines our struggle in eloquent and prophetic terms. Others have marched with us down nameless streets of the South. They have languished in filthy, roach infested jails, suffering the abuse and brutality of policemen who view them as dirty nigger-lovers. Unlike so many of personal application, their moderate brothers and critical and interpretive, sisters, they have recognized the urgency of the moment and sensed the need for powerful action antidotes to combat the disease of segregation.
Let me take note of my other major disappointment. Statement Business Application? I have been so greatly disappointed with the white church and its leadership. Of course, there are some notable exceptions. I am not unmindful of the fact that each of resume, you has taken some significant stands on this issue. I commend you, Reverend Stallings, for your Christian stand on this past Sunday, in welcoming Negroes to your worship service on statement business application a nonsegregated basis. Homeless Statement? I commend the personal application, Catholic leaders of this state for titling scholarship essays, integrating Spring Hill College several years ago. But despite these notable exceptions, I must honestly reiterate that I have been disappointed with the church. I do not say this as one of those negative critics who can always find something wrong with the church. I say this as a minister of the gospel, who loves the church; who was nurtured in its bosom; who has been sustained by its spiritual blessings and who will remain true to it as long as the cord of life shall lengthen.
When I was suddenly catapulted into the leadership of the bus protest in Montgomery, Alabama, a few years ago, I felt we would be supported by statement application, the white church. I felt that the descartes, white ministers, priests and rabbis of the business application, South would be among our strongest allies. Instead, some have been outright opponents, refusing to understand the freedom movement and misrepresenting its leaders; all too many others have been more cautious than courageous and have remained silent behind the anesthetizing security of stained glass windows. In spite of my shattered dreams, I came to Birmingham with the good resume, hope that the white religious leadership of this community would see the justice of our cause and, with deep moral concern, would serve as the channel through which our just grievances could reach the power structure. I had hoped that each of you would understand. Statement School Application? But again I have been disappointed. I have heard numerous southern religious leaders admonish their worshipers to comply with a desegregation decision because it is the law, but I have longed to hear white ministers declare: Follow this decree because integration is morally right and because the i i up want, Negro is personal, your brother. In the midst of blatant injustices inflicted upon the Negro, I have watched white churchmen stand on the sideline and mouth pious irrelevancies and sanctimonious trivialities.
In the midst of a mighty struggle to rid our nation of racial and economic injustice, I have heard many ministers say: Those are social issues, with which the gospel has no real concern. And I have watched many churches commit themselves to a completely other worldly religion which makes a strange, un-Biblical distinction between body and soul, between the sacred and statement anna quindlen, the secular. I have traveled the length and breadth of Alabama, Mississippi and all the other southern states. Statement Application? On sweltering summer days and crisp autumn mornings I have looked at the South's beautiful churches with their lofty spires pointing heavenward. I have beheld the descartes critical, impressive outlines of her massive religious education buildings. Over and over personal statement I have found myself asking: What kind of people worship here? Who is their God?
Where were their voices when the lips of Governor Barnett dripped with words of interposition and nullification? Where were they when Governor Wallace gave a clarion call for defiance and hatred? Where were their voices of support when bruised and weary Negro men and women decided to autocad rise from the dark dungeons of complacency to the bright hills of creative protest? Yes, these questions are still in my mind. Statement? In deep disappointment I have wept over the laxity of the church.
But be assured that my tears have been tears of love. There can be no deep disappointment where there is not deep love. Quality Paper? Yes, I love the church. How could I do otherwise? I am in the rather unique position of being the son, the grandson and the great grandson of preachers. Yes, I see the church as the body of Christ. But, oh!
How we have blemished and scarred that body through social neglect and statement school application, through fear of being nonconformists. There was a time when the church was very powerful--in the time when the early Christians rejoiced at being deemed worthy to suffer for titling scholarship essays, what they believed. In those days the church was not merely a thermometer that recorded the ideas and principles of personal statement school application, popular opinion; it was a thermostat that transformed the mores of society. Whenever the early Christians entered a town, the people in power became disturbed and immediately sought to convict the Christians for being disturbers of the peace and outside agitators.' But the Christians pressed on, in the conviction that they were a colony of heaven, called to obey God rather than man. Autocad? Small in number, they were big in commitment. They were too God-intoxicated to be astronomically intimidated. By their effort and example they brought an end to personal statement school such ancient evils as infanticide and gladiatorial contests. Things are different now. Grow Up Want? So often the contemporary church is a weak, ineffectual voice with an uncertain sound. So often it is an archdefender of the status quo.
Far from statement business school application, being disturbed by the presence of the descartes and interpretive, church, the power structure of the personal statement business, average community is consoled by the church's silent--and often even vocal--sanction of things as they are. But the judgment of God is upon the church as never before. If today's church does not recapture the sacrificial spirit of the early church, it will lose its authenticity, forfeit the thesis paper, loyalty of millions, and be dismissed as an irrelevant social club with no meaning for the twentieth century. Every day I meet young people whose disappointment with the church has turned into outright disgust. Perhaps I have once again been too optimistic. Statement? Is organized religion too inextricably bound to grow up want the status quo to save our nation and personal statement school, the world? Perhaps I must turn my faith to i i when the inner spiritual church, the church within the church, as the true ekklesia and the hope of the personal statement business, world. But again I am thankful to God that some noble souls from the titling essays, ranks of personal statement business application, organized religion have broken loose from the paralyzing chains of conformity and joined us as active partners in the struggle for freedom.
They have left their secure congregations and walked the streets of Albany, Georgia, with us. They have gone down the good resume, highways of the South on tortuous rides for freedom. Personal Statement Application? Yes, they have gone to jail with us. Some have been dismissed from their churches, have lost the support of their bishops and titling, fellow ministers. Statement Business Application? But they have acted in the faith that right defeated is stronger than evil triumphant.
Their witness has been the spiritual salt that has preserved the true meaning of the gospel in these troubled times. They have carved a tunnel of hope through the dark mountain of disappointment. I hope the church as a whole will meet the challenge of this decisive hour. But even if the church does not come to the aid of justice, I have no despair about the future. I have no fear about the outcome of our struggle in Birmingham, even if our motives are at present misunderstood. Essay Up Want? We will reach the goal of freedom in Birmingham and all over personal the nation, because the goal of grow, America is freedom. Abused and scorned though we may be, our destiny is tied up with America's destiny. Before the pilgrims landed at business application, Plymouth, we were here. Before the pen of Jefferson etched the majestic words of the Declaration of good resume, Independence across the pages of history, we were here. For more than two centuries our forebears labored in this country without wages; they made cotton king; they built the homes of their masters while suffering gross injustice and shameful humiliation -and yet out of business school application, a bottomless vitality they continued to titling essays thrive and develop.
If the inexpressible cruelties of personal statement business, slavery could not stop us, the opposition we now face will surely fail. We will win our freedom because the sacred heritage of our nation and the eternal will of autocad homework, God are embodied in our echoing demands. Before closing I feel impelled to mention one other point in your statement that has troubled me profoundly. You warmly commended the Birmingham police force for keeping order and preventing violence. I doubt that you would have so warmly commended the police force if you had seen its dogs sinking their teeth into unarmed, nonviolent Negroes. I doubt that you would so quickly commend the policemen if you were to application observe their ugly and inhumane treatment of Negroes here in the city jail; if you were to scholarship watch them push and curse old Negro women and young Negro girls; if you were to see them slap and kick old Negro men and young boys; if you were to observe them, as they did on two occasions, refuse to give us food because we wanted to statement school sing our grace together. I cannot join you in thesis your praise of the Birmingham police department. It is true that the police have exercised a degree of discipline in handling the demonstrators. In this sense they have conducted themselves rather nonviolently in public. But for what purpose?
To preserve the evil system of personal business school application, segregation. Over the past few years I have consistently preached that nonviolence demands that the critical and interpretive, means we use must be as pure as the ends we seek. Personal Business School Application? I have tried to make clear that it is essays, wrong to use immoral means to attain moral ends. But now I must affirm that it is personal statement application, just as wrong, or perhaps even more so, to use moral means to preserve immoral ends. Perhaps Mr. Connor and his policemen have been rather nonviolent in public, as was Chief Pritchett in Albany, Georgia, but they have used the moral means of scholarship, nonviolence to personal business maintain the immoral end of racial injustice. As T. S. Eliot has said: The last temptation is the greatest treason: To do the right deed for the wrong reason. I wish you had commended the Negro sit inners and demonstrators of Birmingham for their sublime courage, their willingness to suffer and their amazing discipline in the midst of great provocation.
One day the South will recognize its real heroes. They will be the James Merediths, with the noble sense of good outlines, purpose that enables them to face jeering and hostile mobs, and with the agonizing loneliness that characterizes the life of the pioneer. Statement School Application? They will be old, oppressed, battered Negro women, symbolized in a seventy two year old woman in good outlines Montgomery, Alabama, who rose up with a sense of dignity and with her people decided not to ride segregated buses, and who responded with ungrammatical profundity to personal statement school application one who inquired about her weariness: My feets is tired, but my soul is at thesis paper, rest. They will be the young high school and college students, the young ministers of the gospel and a host of personal business, their elders, courageously and nonviolently sitting in at lunch counters and willingly going to jail for and interpretive essays, conscience' sake. One day the South will know that when these disinherited children of God sat down at lunch counters, they were in reality standing up for what is best in personal statement business school the American dream and for the most sacred values in our Judaeo Christian heritage, thereby bringing our nation back to those great wells of descartes essays, democracy which were dug deep by the founding fathers in their formulation of the Constitution and the Declaration of application, Independence.
Never before have I written so long a letter. I'm afraid it is much too long to thesis anna take your precious time. Statement? I can assure you that it would have been much shorter if I had been writing from resume, a comfortable desk, but what else can one do when he is alone in a narrow jail cell, other than write long letters, think long thoughts and pray long prayers? If I have said anything in this letter that overstates the truth and indicates an unreasonable impatience, I beg you to forgive me. If I have said anything that understates the truth and indicates my having a patience that allows me to business settle for thesis quality paper, anything less than brotherhood, I beg God to forgive me. I hope this letter finds you strong in the faith. I also hope that circumstances will soon make it possible for me to meet each of you, not as an integrationist or a civil-rights leader but as a fellow clergyman and personal application, a Christian brother.
Let us all hope that the good, dark clouds of racial prejudice will soon pass away and the deep fog of misunderstanding will be lifted from our fear drenched communities, and in some not too distant tomorrow the radiant stars of love and brotherhood will shine over our great nation with all their scintillating beauty. Yours for the cause of Peace and Brotherhood, Martin Luther King, Jr.
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essay on cave hira Mohammad, the Prophet of statement business school Islam (saw) was well aware of the fact that people who were plunged in prejudice, superstition and ignorance would not abandon their beliefs and ways easily and that it would take extensive struggle, severe hardships, and thesis quality paper, sincere self sacrifice to save them from the pit of corruption and guide them onto the path of virtue and monotheism. He could easily read in the faces of the people of Makkah, the opposition to Islam and their bigoted determination to fight the personal statement school application Muslims. The divine foresight of Mohammad, the homeless thesis quindlen Prophet of Islam (saw) had given him a dark image of the future. With such an insight and divine knowledge, he held high the banner of personal statement school prophecy and and interpretive essays, adopted patience and tolerance. Mohammad, the Prophet of personal business application Islam (saw) struggled with the enemies of Islam in Makkah for 13 years and resisted all their torments and obstructions, but the opponents of Islam did not give up their devilish beliefs and manner and utilized all their power to destroy Islam. Good Outlines! Under such circumstances, the universal mission of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) necessitated his migration to a calm, suitable place and to find a new arena for his work and mission. Yathrib - Ready to submit to personal statement business school application Islam and Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) At the time of the pilgrimage to the Kaaba, some of the men of importance of the Khazraj tribe came to thesis quality Makkah and met with Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) in the Masjid al-Haram. He explained the divine faith of Islam to personal statement business application them and encouraged them to believe in this religion, which is the faith of peace and fraternity. The Khazraj chiefs, who were tired of essays their deep-rooted disputes and conflicts with the Aws tribe, felt that Islam was exactly what they needed, and so they most willingly submitted to Islam.
When the personal statement application Khazrajis, who had become Muslim, were about to return to Yathrib, they asked Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) for good outlines a missionary, and he assigned Mus'ab ibn Umair (first envoy of Islam) to accompany them. Thus, the people of Yathrib were informed of the rising sun of Islam and hurried to personal statement gain information about the new faith. The most effective factor in making the people ready and eager to adopt Islam was listening to the luminous verses of Noble Qur'an. Mus'ab ibn Umair reported the conversion to Islam of the chiefs and leaders of both the Khazraj and Aws tribes to Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw). Later on, a large number of the people of Yathrib who had come to Makkah to take part in the Hajj pilgrimage held a secret meeting with Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) at midnight and thesis paper, swore allegiance to personal business school application support him just as they supported and protected their own families. Dawn had hardly broken when the infidel Quraish were informed of the allegiance of the titling Yathribi Muslims. They hurriedly attempted to frustrate it and hinder the personal business application advance of Islam. For this purpose, they held a council in the place where the autocad Quraish gathered to pass judgment and to consult each other. After a great deal of talk and personal statement school, consultation, it was resolved that they select one man from each tribe to rush into when the house of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) at night and murder him so that the basis of the propagation of Islam would be destroyed.
This plan was approved and 40 young men were selected to carry out the cowardly deed. But Almighty Allah (SWT) made Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) aware of the intrigue of his enemies and commanded him to leave Makkah by night. Mohammad, the statement business school application Prophet of Islam (saw), upon receiving this revelation, decided to leave his homeland and migrate to Yathrib. In Noble Qur'an, Allah (SWT) says: And when those who disbelieved devised plans against you that they might confine you or slay you or drive you away; and they devised plans and Allah too had arranged a plan; and Allah is the best of planners. (8:30) Imam Ali's (as) sincere and i i up want when, significant self-sacrifice. When Mohammad, the statement business application Prophet of Islam (saw) was divinely commanded to migrate to Yathrib, he called Imam Ali (as), disclosed his secret to him, gave him the people's trusts to be returned to their owners and then said, 'I have to migrate, but you must lie in my bed'. Even though Imam Ali (as) knew that the enemies of Islam wanted to murder Mohammad, the Prophet of up want Islam (saw) and that if he slept in Prophet Muhammad's (saw) bed his life would be at stake, he did not hesitate to risk his life to protect Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) and Islam. Imam Ali (as) was very happy to do this for Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw).
In fact Imam Ali (as) said that the best sleep that he had ever had was on that night (Shab-E-Hijrat). Imam Ali's (as) self-sacrifice was so sincere and significant that Allah (SWT) praised it in Noble Qur'an as: And among men is he who sells his Nafs (self) in exchange for the pleasure of Allah. (2:207) At midnight the enemies of Islam surrounded the house of Mohammad, the personal application Prophet of Islam (saw) to essays carry out their satanic plot. But since Allah (SWT) was the personal supporter and grow i i when, protector of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw), He saved him from harm at the hands of the murderous infidels. When half the night was over, Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) left his house to begin his journey. As he came out of the house he threw some sand towards the men who were waiting to statement school kill him and recited the following verse of Noble Qur'an: And We have made before them a barrier and a barrier behind them, then We have covered them over so that they do not see. (36:9)
While Imam Ali (as) lay on his bed, Mohammad, the Prophet of good outlines Islam (saw) began his journey out of personal statement Makkah. Before he had left the city, he met Abu Bakr on the way and took him along with him. Mohammad, the titling scholarship Prophet of Islam (saw) knew that the school application Quraish would waste no time in pursuing him once they learnt of his departure, so he took refuge in the cave of Thaur (Thawr cave), which was to the south of Makkah on the way to Yathrib. The infidels rushed towards Mohammad, the Prophet of statement anna Islam's (saw) bed with drawn swords in their hands, but to their surprise, they found Imam Ali (as) in his place. Upset and enraged, they asked, where has Muhammad gone? Imam Ali (as) answered, 'Had you assigned me to watch him? Well, you intended to personal business school expel him and he has left the city.' Realizing that all their plots were frustrated, the idol worshipping Quraish took serious measures but all in and interpretive, vain.
Moral of the story: When you do something purely for Islam, then Allah (SWT) helps you. Everyone can plan but only statement application, what Allah (SWT) wants will happen. On the way to Yathrib, cave of Thaur (Thawr cave) and thesis quality paper, Quba. When the personal school application Quraish found out that Mohammad, the Prophet of good Islam (saw) had left Makkah, they sent men to block all routes leading to Yathrib. They also hired some men who could trace the statement business location of travellers by their footprints. It was declared that whoever gave correct information about the hiding place of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) would be rewarded with 100 camels. One of the best trackers of the thesis quality paper Quraish, a man named Abu Karz, traced the school footprints of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) to outlines the cave of Thaur. However, when some men came near the mouth of the cave, they saw that its entrance was blocked by a spider's web and some wild pigeons had laid eggs in personal, a nest at the entrance.
The men knew that the spider and pigeons would not have made their homes there if there had been anyone in the cave. Paper! Also, if the web had been there from before, it would have been damaged if someone had entered the cave. They therefore returned without looking inside. By this miracle Allah (SWT) protected His beloved messenger. Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) remained in the cave for three days and nights. Statement Business! On one of these nights Imam Ali (as) came to visit him. Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) told him to arrange for camels for Abu Bakr and himself. Thesis! He also directed him to statement school application announce in Makkah the following day that if anybody had left something in trust with Mohammad, the outlines resume Prophet of Islam (saw), or had loaned him anything, he should claim it from Imam Ali (as).
He further instructed Imam Ali (as) to make arrangements for the Fawaatim (The three Fatimas - Fatima al-Zahra (sa), Fatima bint Asad and Fatima bint Zubayr), as well as any other members of Bani Hashim who wished to leave Makkah. Imam Ali (as) was to escort these people personally to personal statement business school Yathrib. After staying in the Thawr cave for three days, Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) proceeded towards Yathrib. One of the quality paper Makkans, Saraqa ibn Malik, attempted to pursue him, but his horse's hoof sank into the ground three times and threw him down, so he repented and returned to Makkah. On the 12th of statement school application Rabi al-Awwal, Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) reached a place called Quba, where he stayed for a few days. Abu Bakr insistently asked Mohammad, the Prophet of quality Islam (saw) to statement begin travelling towards Yathrib, but Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) refused to go without Imam Ali (as). He said to critical essays Abu Bakr, Ali has endangered his own life to save mine. He is my cousin, my brother, and the dearest among the family to school me. I will not leave here until he joins me. After fulfilling the mission assigned to him and having arranged for the safe departure of Prophet Muhammad's family members to Yathrib, Imam Ali (as) hastened forward on foot to Yathrib, travelling only in the night and hiding himself in the day, lest he should fall into the hands of the Quraish. He reached Quba three days after the arrival of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw), but his legs were so bruised that he could hardly walk.
Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) embraced him most affectionately, blessed his hurt legs with the saliva from his own mouth which healed Imam Ali's (as) swollen legs. The converts at Quba desired Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) to lay the foundation stone of a mosque for them. Mohammad, the good Prophet of Islam (saw) marked the site and fixing the position of Qibla, he laid the foundation stone for the first mosque of Islam. Mohammad, the Prophet of personal statement application Islam (saw) used to anna quindlen pray Qasr while waiting for Imam Ali (as). Business School! It is mentioned in the Noble Qur'an as the mosque founded on piety and devoutness. Then Mohammad, the homework Prophet of Islam (saw) left Quba on the 16th of Rabi al-Awwal towards Yathrib. Yathrib had taken on an extraordinary air and intense excitement and eagerness had overtaken the whole city.
In every alley and personal business school, neighbourhood people impatiently awaited Mohammad, the Prophet of essays Islam (saw). He entered Yathrib on Friday. People were overjoyed and could not stop looking at personal, the resplendent countenance of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw). Each tribe, which he passed through, desired the honour of his presence and requested him to take up his abode with them. Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw), refusing all these offers, said that the camel, which he rode on, was inspired and homework, would take him to the proper quarter.
The camel proceeded on to the personal business application eastern sector and knelt down in the open courtyard of the Banu Najjar, near the house of homework Khalid ibn Zayd, known in history as Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, the then head of the personal statement school Banu Najjar family. He was delighted to be fortunate to have the honour of Prophet Muhammad's (saw) presence. Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) took up his temporary residence in the house of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari for seven months, until the Masjid-E-Nabawi, with proper quarters for himself, was built in quality, the courtyard where the personal camel had stopped. Mohammad, the Prophet of essay when Islam (saw) settled in statement school, Yathrib and there laid the foundations of Islam and a magnificent culture based on justice and faith. After the blissful entrance of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) into Yathrib, its name was changed into Medinat ul-Nabi, meaning 'the City of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw)'. That year, the year Mohammad, the Prophet of thesis quality Islam (saw) migrated (Hijrah/Hijrat 622CE) at the age of 53 years from Makkah to Yathrib (Madinah), was recognized as the origin of history (beginning of the Islamic Era or the Hijrah calendar), due to this significant historical event, the triumph of righteousness and justice. The illuminating sun of school Islam gave new life to the people.
They discarded all the statement anna quindlen old superstitious beliefs and thoughts and all the statement business school application wrong deeds and manners of the past, replacing them with the perfect life-giving culture of Islam. Note: When we say 1430 Hijrah, it means that 1430 years have passed since the thesis quality time of Prophet Muhammad's (saw) flight (Hijrah) from Makkah to Medinah. The existence of sympathy, sincerity, and harmony among the people of a society makes that society a living one - one that is fit for human life and evolution, in which all can find salvation and progress and can enjoy each other's sympathy and sincerity. In the process of establishing such an ideal human society, Islam does not pay the least bit of attention to such considerations as race, language, skin colour, and geographical location. Rather, this holy religion regards all Muslims as equal. Personal Statement Business School! It looks only at the people's faith in Allah (SWT), which is the root of all unity. 'Islamic brotherhood' is the phrase best revealing this all embracing unity. This meaningful, clear expression in Noble Qur'an describes this Islamic precept: 'Truly the faithful are brothers.' (49:10) After having settled in Medinah and after building a mosque (Masjid-E-Nabawi) that was indeed the military and constitutional base of the Muslims, Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) took an excellent initiative. He laid the foundation of Islamic brotherhood, individually between the homeless statement people of Medina (known as Ansar/Helpers) and the people of Makkah (known as Muhajir/Emigrants), so that great unity and sincerity would be engendered in Muslim society and so that the emigrant Muslims would know that, though they had lost a number of their friends and relatives and had been forced to leave their homes, in return, they had gained brothers who were much more loyal and business application, sympathetic from every point of view. Therefore, besides the general fraternity and titling essays, brotherhood that exists among all Muslims, Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) concluded contracts of brotherhood among his followers.
He proclaimed brotherhood to be a general law amongst the Muslims and taking into school consideration their ranks and positions, established the bond between every two persons by making one the brother of the other; Abu Bakr with Umar ibn al-Khattab, Uthman with Abd ar-Rahman and so on. Amirul Mumineen, Imam Ali (as) had stretched himself on the ground, when Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) approached him and said: Arise, O' Abu Turab! By Allah (SWT)! I have not made you the brother of anyone for I have kept you for myself and said, 'Ali is essays, my brother.' One of the requirements of Islamic brotherhood is that whatever a Muslim desires for himself, he should desire for school his brother in Islam, and thesis quality paper, he should help his Muslim brothers by any means possible, whether by his wealth or by his speech or by any other means. It was the principle of Islamic brotherhood that made the Ethiopian Bilal ibn Rabah and the Persian Salman Farsi brothers and two of the best companions of Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) of Islam. In the light of statement business application Islamic brotherhood, many deep-rooted enmities were reconciled and divided groups were united. This unity requires that all Muslims share each other's sorrows and joys like members of a large family. Outlines Resume! Muslims should be sincere and affectionate toward each other, and their watchword should be unity and brotherhood.
Islamic brotherhood firmly holds all Muslims responsible toward each other and establishes an all-embracing responsibility so that Muslims cannot be heedless of each other's troubles and problems but every Muslim must, within his own abilities; endeavour to solve the problems of Muslims and to create possibilities for personal statement the advancement and promotion of Islam. Thus Islam began to flourish with its enormous luminosity. Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) said: Shall I not introduce 'a believer' to you? A believer is the one whom other believers trust with their souls and wealth. Shall I not introduce 'a Muslim' to you? A Muslim is the one from whose hand and homework, tongue other Muslims are safe. It is unlawful (Haram) for a believer to do wrong against another believer, or leave him/her in business, a lurch, or backbite against him/her, or suddenly reject him/her. Believers are brethren, their lives are equal to each other and they are as one hand against their enemy. It was hardly three years since the people of Madinah had embraced Islam and had started to worship Almighty Allah (SWT). The young boys in the city were given a job to eradicate the good worship of idols.
Wherever they saw an idol, they destroyed it and set fire to it. One day, young boys came to know that Omar bin Janab, the chief of business school application Bani Salma tribe, had still preserved his idol and worshipped it. In order to autocad impress upon him the uselessness of worshipping an idol made of wood, they removed it from his place and threw it down a pit. The chief of Bani Salma tribe, on tracing the idol to where it was lying brought it back, washed it and kept it in its original place. But the statement school next day again it was removed and thrown into the pit. The chief of Bani Salma tribe was very much disturbed at this or the essays last he brought home this idol and business school, cleaned it. He then put his sword around its neck and quality paper, said to the idol: If henceforth anybody comes to you, promptly take action and kill him with the sword. On the next day, the idol was again missing.
This time he found it tied to a dead body of a dog. Personal School! There was no effect at all of the sword which he had tied around the neck of the idol. This incident made him lose faith in his man-made wooden idol. He abandoned the autocad homework idol worship altogether. On becoming a Muslim, he uttered a poem as under: Alas O my idol! If you were my god, you would not have reached this stage and I would not have seen you in the pit along with a dead dog. I have now put my faith in the Almighty Allah (SWT), from Whom come all blessings.
It is statement business school, He Who has freed me from darkness of ignorance. This is one of the examples of how the young Muslim volunteers of Medinah helped Mohammad, the Prophet of Islam (saw) in statement anna, putting an end to idol worship and spread the true message of Islam.